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Solar array design. Life in the Atacama Design Review December 19, 2003 J. Teza Carnegie Mellon University. Solar Panel - requirements. Provide energy through day of mission (full sun) plus charge battery for night operation Light weight Robust Low wind profile Easily removable

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solar array design

Solar array design

Life in the Atacama Design ReviewDecember 19, 2003

J. TezaCarnegie Mellon University

Carnegie Mellon

solar panel requirements
Solar Panel - requirements
  • Provide energy through day of mission (full sun) plus charge battery for night operation
  • Light weight
  • Robust
  • Low wind profile
  • Easily removable
    • Transportation, safety, access
  • Minimum shadowing

Carnegie Mellon

solar panel design
Solar Panel - design
  • Emcore ATJ cells
    • Efficiency > 23%
  • Panel area: less than 2.5 m2
  • Modular
    • Ease of assembly / disassembly
    • Simplify design and fabrication
    • Spares
  • Orientation
    • Fixed – simplicity, can’t demonstrate gain of pointed panel offsets complexity and losses of actuation
    • Horizontal – simplicity, symmetry, lower wind profile
  • Can this design provide sufficient power?

Carnegie Mellon

simulation
Simulation
  • Schedule load over typical mission day
  • Simulate insolation for location and time
    • Matlab simulation of sun position, airmass attenuation, integrated over wavelength
    • Compared insolation against SBDART and Atacama 03 field data (error < 6% for insolation > 300 W/m2)
    • Model system energy
      • cell efficiency (empirical)
      • panel area
      • MPPT efficiency

Carnegie Mellon

simulation atacama 2 m 2 panel
Simulation – Atacama – 2 m2 panel

Date: 9/1/04

Date: 9/30/04

Insolation vs. time

Panel Power vs. time

Battery Energy vs. time

Carnegie Mellon

simulation atacama 2 5 m 2 panel
Simulation – Atacama – 2.5 m2 panel

Date: 9/1/04

Date: 9/30/04

Insolation vs time

Panel Power vs time

Battery Energy vs time

Carnegie Mellon

simulation atacama results
Simulation – Atacama - Results

Load energy / day : 2794 Wh

Carnegie Mellon

solar panel design strawman
Solar panel – design strawman
  • 6 modules
    • 160 cells / module
    • dimensions: 58 cm x 85 cm
    • 20 cells per string yielding 46 volts at MPP
    • 8 cells parallel yield 2.8 A Iscmax at 1000 W/m2
  • Panel
    • effective area 2.5 m2
    • geometric area 2.62 m2
  • Power from panel
      • 1000 W/m2 and 23.4% efficiency
      • 97.5 W / module
      • 585 W total
  • Weight estimate: 8 kg total
    • (including cell encapsulation, lamination and wiring)

Carnegie Mellon

solar panel issues
Solar panel – issues
  • Schedule
    • design finalization
    • diode procurement
    • fabrication
  • Spares
  • Testing
    • Pittsburgh sun in spring insufficient
    • Arizona testing before shipment limited

Carnegie Mellon

solar power trackers
Solar – power trackers
  • Purpose
    • Electrically couple solar array to battery / DC bus
    • Operate at or near maximum power point of solar array
  • Vendors
    • Brusa / Solectria – analog, complex, geared for lead acid
    • AERL – buck converter with temperature dependent model of panel IV characteristic (not a true MPPT), simple
    • Biel – digital controlled, efficient, solar race technology
    • Others – typically not suitable for this application
      • Consumer; designed for lead acid (Morningstar)
        • Reliability, do not support Li technologies, not flexible
      • Industrial; designed for lead acid (Trace)
        • Over built - do not support Li technologies

Carnegie Mellon

solar power point tracker biel mppt
Solar power point tracker – Biel MPPT
  • Biel School of Engineering and Science (Switzerland)
  • NG Maximum Power Point Tracker
    • Boost converter
    • Tracks maximum power point
    • Power capacity 800 W
    • Can bus interface
  • Issues – reliability, support, programming
  • Cost $780

Carnegie Mellon

action items
Action items
  • Solar array
    • Finalize design
    • Procure bypass diodes
    • Fabrication detailing
  • Power tracker
    • Finalize solar panels and power system parameters
    • Procure

Carnegie Mellon

insolation atacama 03 field data summary
Insolation – Atacama 03 field data - summary
  • Average available energy per day: 6335 Wh/m2/day
  • Std dev: 212 Wh/m2/day

Carnegie Mellon

solar panel cells
Solar panel – Cells
  • InGaP/GaAs/Ge cell with Si bypass diode
  • Cell dimensions: 4 cm x 6.9 cm (nominal)
  • Cell area, effective : 26.6 cm2
  • Cell area, geometric: 27.3 cm2

Carnegie Mellon

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