School wide positive behavior supports implications for special educators
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School-wide Positive Behavior Supports: Implications for Special Educators. Tim Lewis, Ph.D. University of Missouri OSEP Center on Positive Behavioral Intervention & Supports pbis.org. The Challenge.

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School wide positive behavior supports implications for special educators

School-wide Positive Behavior Supports: Implications for Special Educators

Tim Lewis, Ph.D.

University of Missouri

OSEP Center on Positive

Behavioral Intervention & Supports

pbis.org


The challenge

The Challenge

Students with the most challenging academic and social behavior problems need pro-active comprehensive and consistent systems of support

School-wide discipline systems are typically unclear and inconsistently implemented – absence of a “social behavior curriculum”

Educators often lack specialized skills to address severe problem behavior and learning challenges

Pressure on schools to incorporate national and state initiatives such as Values Education, Anti-Bullying,Safe Schools andachieving “adequate yearly progress.” Many often have clearly defined outcomes without structures to reach or a framework for deciding what should be implemented when, for whom, and to what degree


Behavior challenges

Behavior Challenges

Common school response to problem behavior = “punishment” of misbehavior and assumptions about appropriate behavior and/or seek out alternative placements


The danger

The Danger….

“Punishing” problem behaviors (without a proactive support system) is associated with increases in (a) aggression, (b) vandalism, (c) truancy, and (d) dropping out. (Mayer, 1995, Mayer & Sulzar-Azaroff, 1991, Skiba & Peterson, 1999)


The good news

The Good News…

Research reviews indicate that the most effective responses to school violence are (Elliot, Hamburg, & Williams, 1998;Gottfredson, 1997; Lipsey, 1991, 1992; Tolan & Guerra, 1994):

  • Social Skills Training

  • Academic Restructuring

  • Behavioral Interventions


Toward a solution

Toward a Solution

The answer is not the invention of new solutions, but the enhancement of the school’s organizational capacity to:

  • Accurately adopt and efficiently sustain their use of research-validated practices

  • Provide a Seamless continuum of behavioral and academic support for all students

  • Be part of a district wide system of behavior support

  • Increased focus, teacher training, community training, and funding for early intervention


School wide positive behavior support

School-wide Positive Behavior Support

SW-PBS is a broad range of systemic and individualized strategies for achieving important social and learning outcomes while preventing problem behavior

OSEP Center on PBIS


School wide positive behavior supports implications for special educators

Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

Positive

Behavior

Support

OUTCOMES

Supporting

Decision

Making

Supporting

Staff Behavior

DATA

SYSTEMS

PRACTICES

Supporting

Student Behavior


School wide positive behavior supports implications for special educators

Tertiary Prevention:

Specialized

Individualized

Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior

CONTINUUM OF

SCHOOL-WIDE

INSTRUCTIONAL &

POSITIVE BEHAVIOR

SUPPORT

~5%

Secondary Prevention:

Specialized Group

Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

~15%

Primary Prevention:

School-/Classroom-

Wide Systems for

All Students,

Staff, & Settings

~80% of Students


Universal strategies school wide

Universal Strategies: School-Wide

Essential Features

  • Statement of purpose

  • Clearly define expected behaviors (Rules)

  • Procedures for teaching & practicing expected behaviors

  • Procedures for encouraging expected behaviors

  • Procedures for discouraging problem behaviors

  • Procedures for record-keeping and decision making (swis.org)

  • Family Awareness and Involvement


Benton elementary

Benton Elementary


Universal strategies nonclassroom settings

Universal Strategies: Nonclassroom Settings

  • Identify Setting Specific Behaviors

  • Develop Teaching Strategies

  • Develop Practice Opportunities and Consequences

  • Assess the Physical Characteristics

  • Establish Setting Routines

  • Identify Needed Support Structures

  • Data collection strategies


Universal strategies classroom

Universal Strategies:Classroom

  • Use of school-wide expectations/rules

  • Effective Classroom Management

    • Behavior management

    • Instructional management

    • Environmental management

  • Support for teachers who deal with students who display high rates of problem behavior


Why build strong universal systems of support

Why build strong universal systems of support?

  • We can’t “make” students learn or behave

  • We can create environments to increase the likelihood students learn and behave

  • Environments that increase the likelihood are guided by a core curriculum and implemented with consistency and fidelity across all learning environments


Outcomes of universal supports

Outcomes of Universal Supports


Alton high school average referrals per day

Alton High SchoolAverage Referrals per Day


Group cost benefit

Group Cost Benefit

Office Referral Reduction Across

12 PBIS schools= 5,606

If one Office Referral=15 minutes of administrator time, then 5,606 x 15=

84,090 minutes

1401.15 hours or

233 days

of administrator time recovered and reinvested.


Group cost benefit1

Group Cost Benefit

Office Referral Reduction

Across 12 PBIS Schools =5,606

If students miss 45 minutes of instruction for each Office Referral, 5,606 X 45=

252,270 minutes

4204.50 hours or

700 days

of instructional time recovered!!!!!


Self contained special education building st louis

Enrollment 200

50% free and reduced lunch

Ages 13 and up

Programs

Serves 8 component districts

Physically Impaired

Autism

Language Impaired

Hearing Impaired

Multiple/ Severe Disabilities

Emotional/ Behavioral Disorder

Self-contained Special Education Building - St. Louis


Self contained school

Self Contained School

  • Supported by PBS Coach

  • Prior to implementing school-wide system, Identified 33 students (17%) with chronic behavior teachers felt would require intensive individualized plans


Reported results

Reported Results

  • Reduction in inappropriate behavior (verbal aggression, sleeping in class, off task, disruption)

  • Increased prosocial behaviors and task completion

  • Post universal systems, only 5 students (2%) required intensive individualized support plans


Prevention supports for identified and at risk students

Prevention & Supports For Identified and At-risk Students

Social Behavior


Mental health outcomes

Mental Health Outcomes

  • Does School-wide PBS fit within a comprehensive mental health model of prevention and intervention?

    Minimizing and reducing “risk factors” by building “protective factors”


Risk and protective factor comparison

Risk and Protective Factor Comparison

t = -2.17 (37) p < .036

t = 2.31 (37) p < .026

Partial

N=21

Full

N=18

Partial

N=21

Full

N=18


School wide positive behavior supports implications for special educators

A&D = Alcohol and Drug; ABS = Anti-social Behavior Scale


Impact on moving students to more restrictive settings

Impact on Moving Students to More Restrictive Settings

Columbia Public Schools

  • Elementary Schools who implement SW-PBS referred students to alternative/special school at lower rates compared to schools who were not implementing SW-PBS (r = -0.4306, p < 0.01)

  • Elementary Schools who implemented SW-PBS have less recidivism to alternative settings once students returned to home-school


Prevention supports for identified and at risk students1

Prevention & Supports For Identified and At-risk Students

Achievement


Small group and individual interventions

Small Group and Individual Interventions

Supporting Students At-Risk and those with Disabilities Within Their Home School


Important themes

Important Themes

  • Part of a continuum – must link to school-wide PBS system

  • Efficient and effective way to identify students

  • Assessment = simple sort

  • Intervention matched to presenting problem but not highly individualized


Small group targeted assessment

Small Group/TargetedAssessment

  • Focus is on sorting student for service, not “diagnosis and placement.”

  • Social-Behavioral Concerns

    • Social skills

    • Self-management

  • Academic Concerns

    • Peer Tutors

    • Check in

    • Homework club

  • Emotional Concerns

    • Adult mentors


Table 1 pre and posttest scores for subjects on dependent variable ssrs t

Table 1. Pre- and Posttest Scores for Subjects on Dependent Variable (SSRS-T)

* Significance at the .05 P Value


Individual support plans

Individual Support Plans

  • When small group not sufficient

  • When problem intense and chronic

  • Driven by Functional Behavioral Assessment

  • Linked to school-wide system


Does implementation of pbis improve individual interventions

Does Implementation of PBIS improve individual interventions?

  • Illinois “profile” analysis.

    • Assessment of intervention effectiveness

      Very Low, Low, Med, High, Very High

      0 1 2 3 4

    • School-wide

    • Individual Intervention


School wide positive behavior supports implications for special educators

t = 11.11 (335) p< .0001

  • t = 2.30 (27) p < .03

N=223

N=38

N=17

N=169

Partial

N=169

Full

N=223

Partial

N=17

Full

N=38


Individual pbs

Individual PBS

Success requires:

  • Individual(s) with expertise in FBA-PBS

  • Fluency with a clear process among all staff including their role

  • A basic understanding of the Applied Behavior Analysis = Behavior is functionally related to the teaching environment


Academic challenges

Academic Challenges

Common school response to academic challenges = send to specialists to “be fixed”


Designing school wide systems for student success

Academic Systems

Behavioral Systems

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • High Intensity

  • Intensive, Individual Interventions

  • Individual Students

  • Assessment-based

  • Intense, durable procedures

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Targeted Group Interventions

  • Some students (at-risk)

  • High efficiency

  • Rapid response

  • Universal Interventions

  • All students

  • Preventive, proactive

  • Universal Interventions

  • All settings, all students

  • Preventive, proactive

Designing School-Wide Systems for Student Success

1-5%

1-5%

5-10%

5-10%

80-90%

80-90%


Response to intervention

Response to Intervention


Universal supports core instruction

Consistent “core” curriculum implemented school-wide (research-based)

Core instruction follows effective instructional practices (NWREL.org)

Core instruction implemented with fidelity

Consistent, prioritized, and protected time allocated to instruction

Data decision rules to identify a) those at high risk and b) “non-responders” in a timely manner

Universal Supports: Core Instruction


Targeted supports

Targeted Supports

Part of a continuum – must link to core curriculum

Efficient and effective way to identify students (Curriculum Based Measures; DIBELS) through FREQUENT monitoring

Intervention matched to presenting problem but not highly individualized

In addition to core curriculum


Targeted supports1

Intensify Instruction

Increase academic engaged time

Small group / one:one

Increased opportunities to respond

Supplemental curriculum

Alter Instructional Environment

Rules & routines

Attention signal

Ratio of positive / negative statements

Efficient transitions

Active supervision

Targeted Supports


Individual intensive

Individual/Intensive

When small group/targeted not sufficient

When data indicate high risk*

Linked to core curriculum / outcomes

*limited data beyond literacy


Individual intensive1

Individual/ Intensive

Targeted assessment (Curriculum Based Measures; DIBELS)

Instructiontargets remediation and/or accommodation

Environment provides multiple and sustained engagement opportunities

Monitor outcomes and make necessary adjustments (progress monitoring)

In addition to core curriculum


Implications conclusion

Implications & Conclusion


Implications for educators concerned with children and youth at risk and those with disabilities

Implications For Educators Concerned with Children and Youth At-risk and Those with Disabilities

  • Prevention/early intervention

    • Schools w/PBS refer less to alternative school (CPS)

  • Continuum of Behavioral Supports (prevention – effective individual interventions)

  • Generalization – building environments to increase the likelihood

    • IEP still individualized, behavioral objectives mapped to school-wide expectations


Implications for educators concerned with children and youth at risk and those with disabilities1

Implications For Educators Concerned with Children and Youth At-risk and Those with Disabilities

Build similar SW-PBS systems to facilitate transition from self-contained settings back to home school

Build capacity in schools to support students with academic and social concerns

Technical assistance directing best practice v. simple compliance

Blend education and related initiatives

Safe Schools / Achievement / Mental Health


On school reform

On school reform…

Kauffman states “…attempts to reform education will make little difference until reformers understand that schools must exist as much for teachers as for student. Put another way, schools will be successful in nurturing the intellectual, social, and moral development of children only to the extent that they also nurture such development of teachers.” (1993, p. 7).


School wide positive behavior supports implications for special educators1

School-wide Positive Behavior Supports: Implications for Special Educators

Tim Lewis, Ph.D.

University of Missouri

OSEP Center on Positive

Behavioral Intervention & Supports

pbis.org


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