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Positive Behavioral Supports: Secondary Interventions August 4, 2006 SLU, Hammond. Shawn Fleming La. Dept. of Education (225) 219-7364 Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement. 4 PBIS Elements. OUTCOMES. Supporting Decision Making. Supporting

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Positive Behavioral Supports: Secondary Interventions August 4, 2006 SLU, Hammond

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Positive Behavioral Supports:

Secondary Interventions

August 4, 2006

SLU, Hammond

Shawn Fleming

La. Dept. of Education

(225) 219-7364

Supporting Social Competence &

Academic Achievement

4 PBIS Elements






Staff Behavior





Student Behavior

Targeted Interventions

  • Identifying the Middle Part of the Triangle at your school

    • Using data to make decisions

  • Setting Event Practices

    • Effective Classroom Management Practices

    • Non-Classroom Systems Approaches

  • Practices that Support Students ‘at-risk’

    • BEP

    • Interventions for Escalating Behaviors

Blended Initiatives

Behavioral Systems

Academic Systems

1- 5%

Intensive, Individual Interventions

Specific students

Intensive, Individual Interventions

Specific students


Targeted Group Interventions

Targeted students


Targeted Group Interventions

Targeted students


Universal Interventions

All students


Universal Interventions

All students


Dr. George Sugai, Co-Director

Center on PBS

School-wide Positive Behavior Support Systems


Setting Systems


Setting Systems

Individual Student




Average Daily Referrals by Month





Referrals by Location

@ 45 min/referral = 16,000 minutes!

Referrals by Grade thru Nov. 2005

Referrals by Grade level (2005-06)

Referrals by grade in 2004-2005

8th grade by location

Referrals by Teacher

Mrs. X

Mrs. X by location

Mrs. X by Problem Behavior





Referrals by Location





Classroom Management Practices





  • Link classroom to school-wide

    • School-wide expectations

    • Classroom v. office managed rule violations

  • Teach social skills (just like academics)

    • Tell/model/explain

    • Guided practice

    • Monitor & assess

    • Give positive feedback

    • Adjust & enhance


Review critical features & essential practices of behavior management in classroom settings

Goal: Review of basics & context for self-assessment

Informal & untaught

Reactive & ineffective

Disconnected from SW

Lack of staff fluency

Lack of durability

Lack of instructional fluency

Classroom Management Challenges

Essential Behavior & Classroom Management Practices

  • Classroom Management Self-Checklist(7r)

    George Sugai, 2005

Activity: Rate Your Practices

  • Consider a recent period teaching in your classroom. Rate yourself on the following items.

    • If you are administrator or support staff, rate a teacher that you recently observed.

1. Minimize crowding & distraction

Design environment to elicit appropriate behavior:

  • Arrange furniture to allow easy traffic flow.

  • Ensure adequate supervision of all areas.

  • Designate staff & student areas.

  • Seating arrangements (classrooms, cafeteria, etc.)

2. Maximize structure & predictability

  • Teacher routines: volunteers, communications, movement, planning, grading, etc.

  • Student routines: personal needs, transitions, working in groups, independent work, instruction, getting, materials, homework, etc.

3. State, teach, review & reinforce positively stated expectations

  • Establish behavioral expectations/rules.

  • Teach rules in context of routines.

  • Prompt or remind students of rule prior to entering natural context.

  • Monitor students behavior in natural context & provide specific feedback.

  • Evaluate effect of instruction - review data, make decisions, & follow up.

4. Provide more acknowledgements for appropriate than inappropriate behavior

  • Maintain at least 4 to 1

  • Interact positively once every 5 minutes

  • Follow correction for rule violation with positive reinforcer for rule following

5. Maximize varied opportunities to respond

  • Vary individual v. group responding

  • Vary response type

    • Oral, written, gestural

  • Increase participatory instruction

    • Questioning, materials

6. Maximize Active Engagement

  • Vary format

    • Written, choral, gestures

  • Specify observable engagements

  • Link engagement with outcome objectives

7. Actively & Continuously Supervise

  • Move

  • Scan

  • Interact

  • Remind/precorrect

  • Positively acknowledge

8. Respond to Inappropriate Behavior Quickly, Positively, & Directly

  • Respond efficiently

  • Attend to students who are displaying appropriate behavior

  • Follow school procedures for major problem behaviors objectively & anticipate next occurrence

9. Establish Multiple Strategies for Acknowledging Appropriate Behavior

  • Social, tangible, activity, etc.

  • Frequent v. infrequent

  • Predictably v. unpredictably

  • Immediate v. delayed

10. Generally Provide Specific Feedback for Errors & Corrects

  • Provide contingently

  • Always indicate correct behaviors

  • Link to context

How did I do?

8-10 “yes” = Super

5-7 “yes” = So So

<5 “yes” = Improvement needed

Example Action Plan Strategies

+Build on SW System

+Use school-wide leadership team

+Use data to justify

+Adopt evidence based practice

+ Teach/practice to fluency/automaticity

+ Ensure accurate implementation 1st time

+ Regular review & active practice

+Monitor implementation continuously

+ Acknowledge improvements

Non-example Action Plan Strategies

  • Purchase & distribute classroom management curriculum/book

  • Discuss at faculty meeting

  • Bring in CM expert for next month’s ½ day in-service

  • Observe in effective classroom

  • Observe & give feedback

    What is likelihood of change in teacher practice?

Action Plan

  • Develop a plan to enhance the capacity of all teachers in effective classroom management practices

    • Training and Support Infrastructure

    • Ongoing Monitor and Evaluation plan

Non-classroom Interventions


Setting Systems


Setting Systems

Individual Student




Non-classroom Settings

  • Particular times or places where supervision is emphasized

    • Cafeteria, hallways, playgrounds, bathrooms

    • Buses & bus loading zones, parking lots

    • Study halls, library, “free time”

    • Assemblies, sporting events, dances

  • Where instruction is not available as behavior management tool





Referrals by Location

5 minute activity

  • Pick 1 problematic non-classroom setting you have experienced

  • Identify 2-3 features of problem

  • Identify 2-3 possible solutions

  • Report (<1 min.) main features of your example

1 Minute




Examples of Strategies

  • Recess divided by grade level

    • Monitors know students

  • Recess then lunch

  • Random Recess

  • Zip and Flip


Teacher directed

Instructionally focused

Small # of predictable students


Student focused

Social focus

Large # of unpredictable students

Classroom v. Nonclassroom


  • Physical/environmental arrangements

  • Routines & expectations

  • Staff behavior

  • Student behavior

Training Video: Systematic Supervision

  • Steven Smith & Jeff Sprague

    • Institute on Violence and Destructive Behavior

    • University of Oregon

  • IRIS Media, Inc

    • Eugene Oregon

    • 877-343-4747




“Supervision Self-Assessment”


1. Did I have at least 4 positive for each negative student contact?

  • Have more positive student contacts than negative

  • Use variety of contact forms

~10 positive : 1 correction

2. Did I move continuously throughout area?

  • Obvious

  • Positive

  • Interactive

  • Unpredictable

3. Did I scan frequently ?

  • Head up

  • Make eye contact

  • Overt body position

  • Scan distant areas

4. Did I positively interact with most students?

  • Variety of interaction types

    • Social positives & SW acknowledgements

  • Variety of students

  • Quick

  • Noticeable

  • Publicly appropriate

“Good morning, class!”

Teachers report that when students are greeted by an adult in morning, it takes less time to complete morning routines & get first lesson started.

5. Did I handle minor rule violations efficiently?

  • Quickly

  • Privately

  • Neutrally

  • Follow-up with positive

  • Follow-up

6. Did I follow school-wide procedures for handling major rule violations?

  • Quick

  • By the book

  • Business like

  • Disengage

  • Precorrect for next occurrence


  • What are “costs” of compliance?

  • Can I follow-through with consequences?

  • Have I taught & reinforced compliance?

    Disengage quickly

7. Do I know my school-wide expectations?

  • Positively stated

  • Small in number

  • Easy

  • Comprehensive

  • Defined

8. Did I positively acknowledge at least 5 different students for displays of SW expectations?

  • Individualized

  • Informative

  • Sincere

“Readers’ Digest” Guide

  • 7-8 “yes” = Super Supervision

  • 5-6 “yes” = So-So Supervision

  • <5 “yes” = Improvement Needed

Why does everyone need to be involved?

  • Staff outnumbered

  • Adult presence

    • Prompts desired behavior

    • Deters problem behavior

  • “Being a good citizen”

    • Contribute to school climate

15 minute activity

  • Identify problematic nonclassroom setting(s)

  • Identify factors that contribute to problem

  • Review Self-Assessment & identify possible strategies for addressing problem

  • If needed, build into Action Planning

  • Provide 1 minute report

1 Minute

New Spokesperson



Example Supervisors’ Activities

  • For each item on Self-Assessment share one specific strategy you try to use.

  • Agree on one item that everyone will emphasize next week, & tell all staff.

  • Complete Self-Assessment for one setting next week, & turn into Tom on Friday.

Active Supervision

  • 15 minutes

  • Review “Active Supervision Self-assessment” (8) & discuss possible practices/systems applications to your identified (or new) problem setting

  • Report 2-3 “big ideas” from your team discussion (1 min. reports)

1 Minute




Targeted Student Interventions


Setting Systems


Setting Systems

Individual Student








Referrals by Student

Blended Initiatives

Behavioral Systems

Academic Systems

1- 5%

Intensive, Individual Interventions

Specific students

Intensive, Individual Interventions

Specific students


Targeted Group Interventions

Targeted students


Targeted Group Interventions

Targeted students


Universal Interventions

All students


Universal Interventions

All students


Dr. George Sugai, Co-Director

Center on PBS

What is the “Middle Part” of the Triangle?

  • ~15% of students

  • Multiple referrals

  • At-risk for developing more severe/chronic patterns of problem behaviors

Out of Proportion

  • These students represent less than 25% of school enrollment

  • They account for over 50% of behavioral incidents

  • They consume significant amounts of time and resources

Skill Deficits

At Risk:


Talks out


Talks back to teacher

Uses inappropriate language



Refuses to do work

Difficulty taking turns

Refuses to share

Out of seat


Not dangerous or violent

May have low academic achievement


Danger to self and/or others


What it looks like…

  • General:

    • In line with expectations

In general these students have…

  • Poor peer relations

  • Low academic achievement

  • Difficulty adjusting to school environment

  • Difficulty with imposed structure and order

  • Low self-esteem

Approaches to Intervention

  • Behavior Education Program (BEP)

  • Verbal De-escalation Training

  • Social Skills Training

  • Conflict Resolution Training

  • Anger Management Training

Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools:The Behavior Education Program

A comprehensive book by Deanne A. Crone, Robert H. Horner, and Leanne S. Hawken.

Guilford Publishing, Inc. ISBN 1-57320-940-7; Cat. #0940List Price: $27.00

The Behavior Education Program (BEP)

  • All Teachers and Staff

  • Check in/Check-out system

  • Daily Positive adult contact

  • Daily Behavioral Report Card

    • Increased feedback and attention to behavioral goals

  • Home-School Partnership

  • Across All School Settings

BEP: Student Selection

  • Exceeds a minimum number of ODRs

  • Problems across multiple settings

  • Not a danger to self or others

  • Adult Attention is reinforcing

Example Behaviors

  • Difficulty following directions

  • Frequent peer conflict

  • Low-grade aggression (pushing, tripping, etc…)

  • Disruptive

  • Talks out

  • Unprepared

  • Talks back to teacher

  • Uses inappropriate language

  • Tardy

  • Defiant

  • Refuses to do work

  • Difficulty taking turns

  • Refuses to share

  • Out of seat

Do Not Include:

  • Dangerous/violent students

  • Students who bring a weapon to school

  • Students who injure/may injure themselves

  • Students with a high number of referrals

  • Students with referrals from only one setting, teacher, or time

  • Students who find adult attention aversive

Data-Based Decision

  • The BEP is indicated when…

    • High percentage of students with multiple referrals (>15%)

    • Problem behaviors are not dangerous or violent

    • Problem behaviors are found in multiple locations throughout school, from multiple staff





Referrals by Student


Student “A.B” X Location

Multiple Settings

Student “A.B.” x Motivation


Student “A.B.” by behavior

‘Low-level behavior’


Student “A.B.” by time of day

Does A.B. get Selected?

  • Exceeds a minimum number of ODRs

  • Problems across multiple settings

  • Not a danger to self or others

  • Adult Attention is reinforcing

A.B. is a great candidate for B.E.P!

Catch them before they fall:

  • Intervention before age 9 is more likely to succeed

  • Severity, stability, and risk

  • Substance abuse

  • School dropout

Major Features of most Targeted Interventions

  • Intervention is continuously available

  • Rapid access to intervention (72 hr)

  • Very low effort by teachers

  • Consistent with school-wide expectations

  • Implemented by all staff/faculty in a school

Major Features of most Targeted Interventions (cont’d)

  • Home/school linkage

  • Flexible intervention based on assessment

    • Functional Assessment

  • Adequate resources (admin, team)

    • weekly meeting, plus 10 hours a week for coordination

  • Student chooses to participate

  • Continuous monitoring for decision-making

Student Recommended for BEP

Check In Check Out (CICO)

Meadowlark/ Buena Vista

BEP is Implemented

CICO Coordinator

Summarizes Data

For Decision Making





Regular Teacher


Bi-weekly SST Meeting

to Assess Student








HAWK Report

Date ________ Student _______________Teacher___________________

Daily Progress Report

Why does BEP work?

  • Improved structure

    • Prompts are provided throughout the day for correct behavior.

    • System for linking student with at least one positive adult.

    • Student chooses to participate.

  • Student is “set up for success”

    • First contact each morning is positive.

    • “Blow-out” days are pre-empted.

    • First contact each class period (or activity period) is positive, and sets up successful behavioral momentum.

Why does BEP work?

  • Increase in contingent feedback

    • Feedback occurs more often.

    • Feedback is tied to student behavior.

    • Inappropriate behavior is less likely to be ignored or rewarded.

  • Program can be applied in all school locations

    • Classroom, playground, cafeteria (anywhere there is a supervisor)

Why does BEP Work?

  • Elevated reward for appropriate behavior

    • Adult and peer attention delivered each target period

    • Adult attention (and tangible) delivered at end of day

  • Linking behavior support and academic support

    • For academic-based, escape-maintained problem behavior incorporate academic support

  • Linking school and home support

    • Provide format for positive student/parent contact

  • Program is organized to morph into a self-management system

    • Increased options for making choices

    • Increased ability to self-monitor performance/progress

Logistics for Setting up a BEP program

  • Faculty and staff commitment

    • Is problem behavior a major concern?

    • Are staff willing to commit 5 min per day?

    • Is BEP a reasonable option for us?

      • More than 5 students need extra support

      • BEP is designed to work with 10-12% of kids in a school

      • BEP typically “works” with 67% of students.

      • BEP does NOT replace need for individualized supports.

  • Team available

    • Team leader

    • BEP coordinator (morning, afternoon)

    • Team (meets at least once every two weeks)

  • Logistics for Setting up a BEP program

    • School-wide PBS in place

      • School-wide expectations defined and taught

      • Reward system operating

      • Clear and consistent consequences for problem behavior

  • Process for identifying a student who may be appropriate for BEP

    • Student is not responding to SWPBS expectations

      • Request for Assistance

    • Student finds adult attention rewarding

    • Student is NOT in crisis.

  • Logistics for Setting up a BEP program

    • Daily BEP progress report card

      • Same expectations for all

      • Common schedule

      • All staff taught rules for accepting, completing and returning the card.

  • Home report process

    • Can be same as progress card

    • Can be a unique reporting form

  • CICO Home Report

    Name: _____________________________

    Date: _____________

    ______ I met my goal today ______ I had a hard day

    One thing I did really well today was:_______________________

    Something I will work on tomorrow is: _______________________


    Parent/Guardian Signature: ________________________________________________________


    Logistics for Setting up a BEP program

    • Trading menu

      • Reward for collecting and turning in daily progress card

      • Reward for meeting daily goal

      • Exchange system for points earned

    • Collecting, summarizing and using data

      • Daily updates

      • Weekly review by team

      • Referral to SBLC for individualized interventions.

    Referrals by Grade level (2005-06)

    Mrs. X

    Referrals by Teacher

    5th Grade Teachers

    Action Plan to implement BEP

    • Student Selection

      • Criteria of # of referrals

        • And other criteria met

    • Entire Campus vs. Subset (one grade level)

      • Selection criteria

    • Roles of Staff

      • Coordinator

      • Check-in Staff selection

      • Training and meeting logistics

    • Daily BEP Progress Report

    • Reinforcement/Reward Structure

    • Evaluation plan

    Training Video: Managing Non-Compliance

    • Geoff Colvin

      • University of Oregon

    • IRIS Media, Inc

      • Eugene Oregon

      • 877-343-4747



    Training Video: Defusing Anger and Aggression

    • Geoff Colvin

      • University of Oregon

    • IRIS Media, Inc

      • Eugene Oregon

      • 877-343-4747



    Escalating Behavior Model

    As developed by Geoff Colvin and George Sugai, 1989

    Revised 1994 and spring 2004 OSEP/PBIS


    Behavior is _________(function)

    Behavior is _________ (lawful)

    Behavior is escalated through __________ (practice)

    Behavior can be changed through an _____________approach


    Understanding Escalating Behavior


    Sequence of Escalating Behaviors

    • Student’s escalating behaviors typically follow a sequence.

      • It starts off relatively small and neutral

      • It intensifies and shifts to personal affront

    • The teacher escalates with the student

      • Same sequence for teacher

      • Sequence is interactive

        • If teacher would have backed off, the situation would not have escalated


    Seven Main Phases of Escalation

    • Calm

    • Trigger

    • Agitation

    • Acceleration

    • Peak

    • De-escalation

    • Recovery


    Escalation Model




    Intensity of Behavior








    (Colvin & Sugai, 1989) OSEP/PBIS

    Student is cooperative

    Accepts corrective feedback

    Follows directives

    Sets personal goals

    Ignores distractions

    Calm Phase


    Interventions in Calm Phase

    • Interact positively with student

    • Teach & communicate positive expectations

    • Focus on prevention (what can we do before problem behaviors occur?)

    • Arrange opportunities for high rates of successful academic and social interactions

    • Provide positive feedback and reinforcements

    • Teach to skill deficits: problem solving, relaxation strategies and self management


    Trigger Phase of Escalation

    • Colvin and Sugai describe this phase as experiencing a series of unresolved conflicts

      • Repeated failure

      • Frequent corrections

      • Interpersonal conflicts

      • Timelines imposed

      • Low rates of positive reinforcement


    Interventions in Trigger Phase

    • Focus on prevention and redirection

    • Respond with empathic listening and care

    • Reduce task requirement

    • Reduce stress – remove or modify problem context

    • Increase opportunity for success

    • Reinforce what has been taught


    Agitation Phase

    • Student exhibits an increase in unfocused behavior

      • Off-task

      • Frequent start/stop

      • Out of seat

      • Talking with others

      • Social withdrawal


    Interventions for Agitated Phase

    • Focus on reducing anxiety…ask “how do I de-escalate and then re-introduce the task?”

      • Make structural, environmental modifications

      • Provide reasonable options and choices

      • Involve in successful engagements (alternative task) and allow de-escalation time, then

      • “Do you want to begin this…now or do you want 2 more minutes of time?”


    Acceleration Phase

    • Escalation and self-control are inversely related

    • Decision making deteriorates as you escalate

    • Student displays focused behavior

      • Provocative

      • High intensity

      • Threatening


    Interventions for Acceleration

    • Focus on safety

    • Remove the trigger (disengage and have another adult take over if you are the trigger)

    • Remove any factors maintaining the problem behaviors

    • If crisis is developing, clear the room and follow crisis prevention procedures


    Peak Phase of Escalation

    • Student is out of control and displays most severe problem behaviors. It will run it’s course now.

      • Physical aggression

      • Self injury

      • Property destruction

      • Escape/social withdrawal

      • Physiological symptoms (increase heart rate, shallow, rapid breathing or hyperventilation, etc.)


    Intervention for Peak Phase

    • Focus is on safety and crisis intervention. Follow your school’s crisis plan.


    De-escalation Phase

    • Student displays confusion but there is a decrease in severe behavior

      • social withdrawal

      • blaming others

      • denial

      • bargaining

      • minimizing the problem


    Intervention for De-escalation

    • Disengage and remove excess attention

      • allow time to reach recovery phase

      • don’t nag

      • don’t place demands – it can escalate again

      • avoid blaming

      • don’t force apology during this stage

        • can use apology during calm phase

        • save consequences until they will be effective and not before


    Recovery Phase

    • Student displays eagerness to engage in non-engagement activities

      • may be social but not on task yet

      • non-cooperative in group activities

      • may attempt to correct

        the problem


    Interventions in Recovery Phase

    • Focus on re-establishing relationship, routine and activities

    • Positively reinforce appropriate behavior

    • Follow through with consequences for problem behavior when student is stable and calm

    • Engage student in problem solving to create a plan to prevent future escalation


    Problem Solving Process

    • Have student identify problem behavior

    • Have student identify trigger to

      escalating behavior

      • Ask the student to ask him/herself…

        • What did I do that was problematic?

        • Why did I do it?

        • What triggered my behavior?

        • Do I want to change my behavior?

    Problem Solving

    • Have student brainstorm alternative ways to cope with the trigger/s in the future

      • Ask student to ask him/herself…

        • What could I have done differently? (name several alternatives)

        • What else could I have done differently?

        • What are the best ways that I calm myself when I’m upset?

        • What are some other ways I could calm myself when I’m upset?

    Continue Problem Solving

    • Assist student in developing an informal plan to change behavior

      • Ask student to ask him/herself…

        • What did I do well in this situation?

        • What do I need to do next?

        • Can I do it?

        • What am I willing to do differently?

    Complete The Plan

    • Have student write down what he/she agrees

      to do differently in the future

    • Have student and adult assisting the student

      in developing the plan sign the plan

    • Date it

    • Keep the original, give copy

      to student & parent

    Complete The Plan

    • Implement the plan

    • Monitor progress

    • Have student and adult implementing the plan evaluate effectiveness of plan

    • Revise plan as needed

    Action Plan to Train Staff

    • Topics identified through prioritized problem behaviors

    • Schedule of staff training

    • Role playing scenarios

    • Evaluation of skills

      • No stress

      • ‘On the beat’

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