The musculoskeletal system
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THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM. Objectives. Objectives. After studying this chapter, you will be able to:. Name the parts of the musculoskeletal system and discuss the function of each part. Define combining forms used in building words that relate to the musculoskeletal system.

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THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM

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The musculoskeletal system

THE MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM


Objectives

Objectives

Objectives

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

  • Name the parts of the musculoskeletal system and discuss the function of each part.

  • Define combining forms used in building words that relate to the musculoskeletal system.


Objectives part 2

Objectives Part 2

Objectives CONT’D

  • Name the common diagnoses, laboratory tests, and clinical procedures used in treating the musculoskeletal system.

  • Define the major pathological conditions of the musculoskeletal system.


Objectives part 3

Objectives Part 3

Objectives CONT’D

  • Define surgical terms related to the musculoskeletal system.

  • List common pharmacological agents used in treating the musculoskeletal system.


Ch 5 vocabulary

Acetabul(o)

Brachi(o)

Burs(o)

Calci(o)

Cervic(o)

Cost(o)

Dactyl(o)

Femor(o)

Fibr(o)

Kyph(o)

Lamin(o)

Lumb(o)

Myel(o)

Patell(o)

Ped(i)

Radi(o)

Scapul(o)

Stern(o)

Synov(o)

Uln(o)

Ch 5 Vocabulary


Structure and function

Structure and Function

Structure & Function

Forms the body framework

Protects and supports internal organs

Enables the body

to move

Consists of bones, joints and muscles


Bones

Bones

Structure & Function

Bones

  • Bone cells are called osteocytes

  • Consists of a rich supply of blood vessels and nerves

  • Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells

  • Osteoclasts are responsible for reabsorbing dead bone tissue


Ossification

Ossification

phosphorus

calcium

vitamin D

Structure & Function

Bones

The development of osteocytes and the hardening process is called ossification.

Ossification depends on:


Divisions of the skeleton

Divisions of the Skeleton

  • Axial

    • Skull

    • Spinal column

    • Ribs

    • Sternum

  • Appendicular

    • Upper & lower extremities

    • Pelvic girdle


Common bone categories

Common Bone Categories

Structure & Function

Bones

The adult skeleton has 206 bones.

Common Bone Categories

  • Long bones

  • (Femur)

  • Short bones

  • (Wrist bones)

  • Flat bones

  • (Skull)

  • Irregular bones

  • (Vertebrae)

  • Sesamoid bones

  • (Kneecap)


Parts of the long bone

Spongy bone

Articular cartilage

Epiphyseal disks

Proximal epiphysis

Space containing red marrow

Compact bone

Medullary cavity

Yellow marrow

Diaphysis

Periosteum

Distal epiphysis

Femur

Parts of the Long Bone

  • Diaphysis

    • Shaft or longest portion

    • Compact bone

      • Hard dense part of bone that does not bend

    • Spongy bone

      • Covers medullary cavity

  • Epiphysis

    • Ends of long bone

    • Epiphyseal plates: growth plates

    • Contains red marrow


Parts of the long bone1

Spongy bone

Articular cartilage

Epiphyseal disks

Proximal epiphysis

Space containing red marrow

Compact bone

Medullary cavity

Yellow marrow

Diaphysis

Periosteum

Distal epiphysis

Femur

Parts of the Long Bone

  • Medullary cavity

    • Hollow space

    • Contains yellow marrow

  • Tissues of a bone

    • Periosteum-outer covering of bone

    • Endosteum-lines medullary cavity


Parts of long bones

Parts of Long Bones

  • Bone marrow

    • Red bone marrow

      • Manufactures erythrocytes & leukocytes

    • Yellow bone marrow

      • Composed of fat cells

      • Functions as fat storage


Parts of long bones part 2

Parts of Long Bones Part 2

Spongy bone

Articular cartilage

Epiphyseal disks

Proximal epiphysis

Space containing red marrow

Compact bone

Medullary cavity

Yellow marrow

Diaphysis

Periosteum

Distal epiphysis

Femur

Parts of a Long Bone

  • Articular cartilage is a thin flexible substance that provides protection at movable points.


Bones of the skull

Bones of the Skull

  • Cranium: encloses the brain (skull)

    • Frontal

      • forehead

    • Parietal

      • Roof and upper sides of cranium

    • Occipital

      • Posterior floor and walls of cranium

    • Temporal

      • Sides and base of cranium


Bones of the jaw

Bones of the Jaw

  • Mandible

    • Lower jaw bone

  • Maxilla

    • Upper jaw bone


Sutures

Sutures

  • Where cranial bones join & fuse

  • Fontanelles:

    • Soft spots on infant skull


Sinuses

Sinuses

  • Frontal sinuses

  • Ethmoid sinuses

  • Maxillary sinuses

  • Sphenoid sinuses

Sinsuses

Cavities that reduce the weight of a bone.


Spinal column

Spinal Column

Structure & Function

Spinal Column

  • Cervical = 7

  • Thoracic = 12

  • Lumbar = 5

  • Sacrum = 5

  • Coccyx = 1

Consists of five sets of vertebrae


Thoracic cavity

Thoracic cavity

  • Ribs

    • Called costals

    • Attach posterior to thoracic vertebrae

    • 7 pairs True ribs

    • Attached anterior to sternum

    • 3 pairs False ribs

    • Attached anterior to cartilage

    • Joins with sternum

    • 2 pairs Floating ribs

    • Not attached anteriorly


Thoracic cavity1

Thoracic Cavity

Sternum:

  • Manubrium

    • Upper portion of sternum

  • Body of sternum

    • Middle portion of sternum

  • Xiphoid process

    • Cartilage

    • Lower portion of sternum


Shoulders

Shoulders

  • Clavicle

    • Collar bone

    • Connects sternum

  • Scapula

    • Shoulder blade


Pelvic girdle hips

Pelvic girdle HIPS

  • Ilium

    • Upper blade shape

  • Ischium

    • Lower portion near hips

  • Pubic bone

    • Fuse together with sacrum

  • Pubic symphysis

    • Cartilage joint that holds bones together


Bones of the extremities

Bones of the Extremities

Upper Arm

Lower Arm

  • Humerus

  • Ulna

  • Radius

Hand and Fingers

  • Carpals (wrist)

  • Metacarpals (palm)

  • Phalanges (fingers)

Structure & Function

Bones of the Extremities


Bones of the extremities part 2

Bones of the Extremities Part 2

Upper Leg

  • Femur (thigh)

Structure & Function

Bones of the Extremities (Cont’d)

Lower leg

  • Tibia (shin)

  • Fibula (little fibber)

  • Patella (kneecap)

Feet and Toes

  • Tarsals (ankle)

  • Calcaneus (heel)

  • Metatarsals (arch)

  • Phalanges (toes)


Joints

Joints

Amphiarthroses

Diarthroses

  • Moves slightly

  • Vertebrae

  • Moves freely

  • knee

Joints (articulations)

Synarthroses

  • No movement

  • Skull

Types of Joints


Freely moveable joints

Freely Moveable Joints

  • AKA: Synovial joints

  • Lined with a synovial membrane

  • Synovial fluid

    • A joint lubricator

    • Helps synovial joints move easier

  • Bursa

    • Sac lined with synovial membrane

    • Helps reduce friction


Tendons and ligaments

Tendons and Ligaments

Tendons are bands of fibrous tissue that connect muscles to bone.

Ligaments connect bones to other bones.

Structure & Function

Tendons and Ligaments


Muscles fascia

Muscles - Fascia

Structure & Function

Muscles

Most muscles are covered by a band of connective tissue called fascia, that covers & supports the muscle.


Muscles

Muscles

Structure & Function

Muscles

Muscles contract (shorten) and extend to provide body movement.

Types of Muscles

  • Voluntary (striated)

    • skeletal

  • Involuntary

    • smooth or visceral- Move internal organs

    • Cardiac (striated)


The musculoskeletal system

Structure & Function

  • Origin-

    • Attachment to a stationary bone

  • Insertion-

    • Attachment to a movable bone


Muscles origin or insertion

Muscles – Origin or Insertion

Lift up your right forearm to flex your bicep brachii as if making a fist. Identify the origin and insertion attachment by agreeing with one of the following statements:

The radius is the origin and the scapula is the insertion.

---OR---

The scapula is the origin and the radius is the insertion.


Diagnostic procedural and laboratory terms

Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Terms

  • Arthrography

    • Examine joints using x-ray

  • Arthroscopy

    • Internal exam of a joint using an instrument


Diagnostic procedural and laboratory terms1

Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Terms

  • Diskography

    • Exam of disks by injection of dye then an x-ray

  • Electromyogram

    • Image of electrical activity of muscles


Diagnostic procedural and laboratory terms2

Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Terms

  • Computerized tomography (CT)

    • Multiple X-rays

    • Computer puts in cross sectional views

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    • Magnets excite H ions

    • Computer makes pic


Diagnostic procedural and laboratory tests pt 5

Diagnostic, Procedural, and

Laboratory Tests

Diagnostic, Procedural, and Laboratory Tests Pt 5

Other Tests

  • Goniometer

  • -Tests for ROM

  • Densitometer

  • -Measures bone density

Goniometer


Pathology

Pathology

Pathology

Causes of musculoskeletal disorders

  • Birth defects

  • Injury

  • Degenerative disease

  • Systemic disorders


Pathology birth defects

Pathology-Birth Defects

  • Spina bifida

    • Incomplete closure of spinal cord & protrusion-meningocele


Pathology birth defects1

Pathology-Birth Defects

  • Talipes

    • AKA: club foot

    • congenital deformity of the foot

    • curled shape or twisted position of the ankle, heel & toes


Pathology injuries

Pathology-Injuries

  • Herniated disk

    • Disk is compressed & protrudes

    • Presses on nerve causing sciatica

    • Pain radiates from butt down leg to foot/toes


Pathology injuries1

Pathology-Injuries

  • Fractures

    • Incomplete fracture

      • Fracture line doses not extend through bone or disrupt the entire thickness of bone

    • Greenstick fracture

      • Incomplete break that occurs almost exclusively in children


Pathology injuries2

Pathology-Injuries

  • Fractures, cont.

    • Comminuted fractures

      • Bone broken in several places and splinters of bone can be embedded in surrounding tissue

    • Compression fracture

      • Bone collapses due to disruption of bone tissue


Pathology injuries3

Pathology-Injuries

  • Fractures, cont

    • Compound:

      • Causes disruption of skin and soft tissue

      • Fragment of bone punctures skin

      • Often complicated by infection


Pathology injuries4

Pathology-Injuries

  • Injury or trauma to the joints or muscle may cause a sprain.

  • Overuse of a muscle may cause a strain.

  • Tendinitis: overuse of a joint

  • Dislocation: when bones in a joint become displaced or misaligned

  • Subluxation: partial dislocation


Pathology pain discomfort

Pathology-Pain & Discomfort

  • Myalgia: muscle pain

  • Myositis: muscle inflammation

  • Arthritis: inflammation of joints

    • Arthralgia: joint pain

    • Ankylosis: stiff joints

    • Osteoalgia- bone pain


Pathology abnormal muscle tone

Pathology-Abnormal Muscle Tone

  • Hypertrophy: abnormal increase in muscle size

  • Atrophy: muscles shrink in size from disuse


Pathology abnormal muscle tone1

Pathology-Abnormal Muscle Tone

  • Spasms: abnormal contractions

  • Rigor: abnormal muscle stiffness

  • Tetany: painfully long spasm


Pathology abnormal postures

Pathology-Abnormal Postures

  • Kyphosis

    • Rounded bowing of back at thoracic area

  • Scoliosis

    • Lateral curvature of spine


Pathology abnormal postures1

Pathology-Abnormal Postures

  • Lordosis

    • Abnormal inward curvature of lumbar vertebrae


Surgical terms

Surgical Terms

Surgical Terms

Almost any major part of the musculoskeletal system can now be surgically repaired.

Supportive devices

  • Traction

  • Prosthetic devices

  • Cast

  • Splints


Surgical terms1

Surgical Terms

External fixation

  • Splints or casts

    Internal fixation

  • Pins or rods


Surgical terms2

Surgical Terms

  • Reduction: return of a part to normal position

  • Open reduction: done surgically

  • Closed reduction: external manipulation of dislocated bones


Surgical terms3

Surgical Terms

  • Traction

    • Aligns ends of a fracture by pulling the limb into a straight position


Surgical terms4

Surgical Terms

  • Amputation

    • Surgical removal of limb

    • Prosthesis replaces limb or joints


Surgical terms5

Surgical Terms

  • Osteoplasty: surgical repair of bone

  • Osteoclasis: breaking of bone when not healed properly

  • Osteotomy: incision into a bone

  • Tenotomy: cutting of tendon to repair muscle

  • Myoplasty: muscle repair

  • Arthroplasty: joint repair

  • Arthrocentesis: puncture of a joint


Surgical terms6

Surgical Terms

  • Bunionectomy

    • Removal of bunion on hallux

  • Laminectomy

    • removes parts of the vertebrae) that is narrowing the spinal canal and squeezing the spinal cord and nerve roots.


Pharmacology part 2

Pharmacology Part 2

Pharmacology

Common medications for the Musculoskeletal System

  • Analgesics- relieves pain

  • Steroids- reduce inflammation

  • Muscle Relaxants- relieve stiffness

  • NSAID’s- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs


Apply your knowledge

Apply Your Knowledge

"Apply Your Knowledge"

Mrs. Jones is concerned with the “soft spots” she feels on her baby’s head. You realize the medical term for these “soft spots” is:

A. Fontanelle

B. Fissure

C. Foramen

A. Fontanelle


Apply your knowledge part 2

Apply Your Knowledge Part 2

Head & Trunk

Arms & Legs

"Apply Your Knowledge"

Identify the axial and appendicular portions of the skeleton.


Apply your knowledge part 3

Apply Your Knowledge Part 3

"Apply Your Knowledge"

Mary is complaining of headache, stuffy nose and pressure with facial discomfort. Her physician tells her she has allergies. Which of the following conditions might she be experiencing?

A. fracture of her vomer

B. sinusitis

C. stroke

B. sinusitis


Apply your knowledge part 4

Apply Your Knowledge Part 4

"Apply Your Knowledge"

Relieves pain

1

A. steroids

B. analgesics

C. muscle relaxants

Reduces swelling

2

Relieves stiffness

3

Match the correct medication with its action.


Combining forms

Combining Forms

Combining Forms

Match the following combining forms and meanings.

heel

bent

joint

arm

ankyl (o)

arthr (o)

brachi (o)

calcane (o)


Combining forms part 2

Combining Forms Part 2

Combining Forms

Match the following combining forms and meanings.

carp (o)

cephal (o)

chondr (o)

dactyl (o)

kyph (o)

cartilage

hump

head

wrist

fingers, toes


Combining forms part 3

Combining Forms Part 3

Combining Forms

Match the following combining forms and meanings.

foot

finger or toe bone

muscle

bone

spinal cord; bone marrow

my (o)

myel (o)

pod (o)

oste (o)

phalang (o)


Combining forms part 4

Combining Forms Part 4

Combining Forms

Match the following combining forms and meanings.

curved

vertebra

spine

ulnar

tendon

rachi (o)

scoli (o)

spondyl (o)

ten (o)

uln (o)


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