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User-Producer Conference Water Accounting for Integrated Water Resource Management May 22 – 24, 2006 (Voorburg, the Netherlands). Eng. YOSRY KHAFAGY. Arab Republic of Egypt (ARE) Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI) I ntegrated I rrigation I mprovement & M anagement:.

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Towards an efficient water management for a sustainable development of water resources in egypt

User-Producer Conference

Water Accounting for Integrated Water Resource Management

May 22 – 24, 2006 (Voorburg, the Netherlands)


Arab Republic of Egypt (ARE)

Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation (MWRI)


Towards an Efficient Water Management for a Sustainable Development of Water Resources in Egypt

Procurement Specialist, PMU-IIIMP-MWRI

Ph.D. Candidate, Civil Engineering, Irrigation & Hydraulics

Ever-increasing Population Led to Increasing Pressure on Water&Land Resources

  • Population growth;

Limited Conventional Resources and Non-conventional Ones, while increasing Demand

  • Water Scarcity;

  • Sectors competition;

Increasing Sectors Demand (Irrigation, Drinking, Industry, …etc.)

Rural Poor need to withstand the limited food availability which is mainly a water dependent issue

  • Food security;

  • Pollution & emission.

Ever-increasing water and environment pollutants destroy the main elements in the food-chain

Lack of available financial resources required for new resources investments.

  • Cost of new resources;

  • Main Pillars andDeriving forces!

  • Why IWRM?!

Crop Pattern&IIP Water&Land Resources

3.0 +4.0

Current and Future Water Resources Availability


  • Agriculture (84.5%)

Dinking (6%)

Industry (9.5%)

Nile Water

55.557.5 -


Rains and Floods


GW (Deserts&Sinai)

1.0 - 3.5

GW (Valley&Delta)


Current (BCM)

Future 2017

Agr. Dr. Reuse

5.0 - 8.5


0.7 - 2.0

  • Major Country Strategy Tasks

  • Availability;

  • Technology;

  • ± ve Impact on:

    -Natural resources;

    -Environment; and

    -Public health.

  • Sustainability.

  • Regulatory&policy framework;

  • Integrated Planning;

  • Efficient Economic mechanisms;

  • Introduction to PPP approach;

  • Raising Awareness/Maintain convincing;

  • Decentralization & Participation; and

  • Bridging research and Practice.

  • Opportunities and Major Tasks!

Standards & Guidelines Water&Land Resources



Appropriate Technology

Monitoring &




Operational Rules

Law Enforcement


End User



  • Needs Assessments for Sustainable Use



  • IWRM Action Plan

  • Empowering water users for participation in the planning and implementation process;

  • Facilitating greater private sector investments in irrigation and drainage infrastructure;

  • Redefining the role of public agencies through Integrated Irrigation Management.

ID Water&Land Resources




Other Min.


Central Directorates




General Directorates












Current Setting of MWRI Institutions (Fragmentized)



Main canal

Top-down interactions

Limited cross-sectoral coordination

Limited integrated planning & management

Several BCs


Farmers /

Water Users

F / WUs


F / WUs

Decentralization Water&Land Resources



Reg Mgt Com

IWMD Adv. Com.

Dist. WBOs

Integrated WM






Approached Setting of MWRI Institutions (Integrated)






Central Government


Main canal


Several BCs




Farmers /WUs



  • Endeavors

  • Introduction of (PIM) approach: Water Boards Project (WBP),

  • Introduction of Irrigation Improvement Projects (IIPs);

  • Introduction of Pump Stations Rehabilitation Projects (PSRPs);

  • Introduction of National Drainage Projects (NDPs);

  • Introduction of Agricultural Policy Reform Project (APRP);

  • Life Integrated Water Resources Management Project (LIFE)

  • Last, but not least introduction of a new approach to Integrated Irrigation Improvement and Management Project (IIIMP).

  • Target groups

  • MWRI Staff and Institutions, Rural poor in Nile Delta, other Stackholders

  • Objectives

  • Ensure sustainable optimum use of water and land resources throughout strengthening the decentralization of decision making and users’ participation in planning, operation and maintenance activities;

  • Increase the economic return in the project command areas by optimizing the use of available resources and improved infrastructures;

  • Broaden the saving in irrigation cost and controlling the water use for other purposes;

  • Increase the agriculture productivity, hence, increasing the farmers income and improving the quality of life in the rural communities;

  • Component 1: Water&Land ResourcesImproved and Integrated Water Management

  • Ensure availability of proper technical structures and procedures to support a sustainableoptimization of water resource use.

  • Improve the water delivery to water users through Irrigation and drainage networks as well as pumping stations system upgrading and rehabilitation.

  • Improve the operational and maintenance procedures as critical requirements to ensure the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of the investments.

  • Component 2: Water&Land ResourcesInstitutional Development and Capacity Building

  • Empower water users through organizations that allow them to solve their internal disputes, assess their needs and priorities and consolidate them so that they can more easily be taken into

  • Simultaneously, a transfer of responsibilities can be considered so as to let water users deal with local issues and let managers focus on higher scale issues.

  • This process combines empowerment and responsabilization of water users: they are no longer beneficiaries or recipients but actors within a process

  • Component 3: Water&Land ResourcesProject Management, Coordination and Integration

  • Regulatory Framework: Integrated cooperative managerial schemes to be set up among MWRI entities and other pertinent agencies.

  • Cross-sectoral coordination: ensures appropriate technical, social, environmental, and economic conditions, Limits duplication and contradiction among various agencies.

  • Decentralization: proper regulatory and policy framework in order to guide local decision-makers at most lowest appropriate level.

  • Participation : involvement of water users whose needs and priorities have to be properly identified and addressed for effective results. can significantly improve management practices and reduce costs.

  • Component 4: Water&Land ResourcesEnvironmental Mainstreaming

  • Looks into the environmental impacts of the project. The objective is to identify and mitigate those while also looking at how the project can contribute to improving environmental conditions in general (and notably water quality issues).

  • The overall environmental impact of the IIIMP is expected to be positive, leading to improved land and water management.

  • environmental management plan (EMP) to be addressed main environmental issues and significant impacts: i. the uncontrolled discharge of sewage into irrigation and drainage systems, with corresponding impacts on public health, ii. the improper disposal of solid wastes into irrigation and drainage canals.

Objective: Improved Water Use

Consideration is to be given to development & implementation of comprehensivepilot on-farm integratedwater management and agricultural programs, aimed at providing farmers with relevant and practical demonstrations of better practices to maximize benefits resulting from introduction of improved operational flow regimes and other system improvements

  • Technology Transfer: Introduction of improved irrigation and agronomic technologies to farmers aiming at reducing water losses, irrigating more uniformly, thus increasing yields & returns

  • Marketing: Provision of market information to farmers’ to maximize returns (e.g. more informed crop selection, shift to higher value crops)

  • Contribution to adoption of irrigation improvement: Assisting in implementation of irrigation improvement program by contributing to farmers’ awareness about benefits of irrigation improvement

  • Water Allocation Proceduresat National Level

  • Along Nile Valley and Main Canals System;

    Information needs assessments:

    - Cropping Pattern in different areas;

    - Climatic conditions; and

    - Expected water demands.


Hydrological yearly allocation plan


Planned releases from HAD to reach Delta (10 days), when filled with yearly floods


National yearly allocation Plan

National yearly allocation Plan to be adjusted during implementation through information (crop Pattern&demand/15 days)


- Climate;

- Secondary sources

1- drainage re-use

2- GW

Modernization of the National Allocation yearly plan through Computerized system


Matching Supply and Demand Program

The so called,


Two seasons in the cropping cycle:

Summer season:

May to August-September

Winter season:

September-October to April

Winter Quota/CA

10 m3/fed/day

Summer Quota/CA

40 m3/fed/day

Yearly average quota

30 m3/fed/day

Two-category Indicators

Implementation Indicators

Outcome Indicators

IWMD Established

Quality of Irrigation Service

Data-based Management

Equity of Water Distribution

BCWUAs Participating

Value of Agricultural output

1: Quality of Irrigation Service Water&Land Resources

  • Baseline values will assess future changes in pilot IWMD

  • Project-wide baseline values are a data availability dependent

1.1 Number of Complaints

1.2:Actual and Target District Inflows Water&Land Resources

  • District Target Water Allocation is provided each 15-daily period during the irrigation year (semi-monthly).

  • Inflow and outflow structures are to be calibrated for computing the actual flow delivered to the district

  • Ratio of actual and target allocation values are to be determined in both summer and winter seasons.

  • Share of No. of 15-daily periods for which supply matched target within ±10% is to be computed.

1.3:Farmers Satisfaction Water&Land Resources

  • Client satisfaction surveys should provide information on farmer satisfaction in both summer and winter seasons. (survey shows that 72 and 94% of farmers are satisfied in Summer and Winter respectively, hence, efficient water management.

1.4:Rotations Water&Land Resources

  • Rotating irrigation service among branch canals is one of the most important tools managers have, of allocating available water.

  • Rotating irrigation service should be officially set up.

  • the Main concern of IWMDs is to adjust and customize rotations as they attempt to save water and improve the quality of irrigation service to farmer.

  • Degree of correspondence between planned and actual rotation patterns require better data before they can be computed.

2: Equity of Water Distribution Water&Land Resources

Relative Water Supply among IWMDS

Not responding, due to the unavailability of data

Group 1:

Easy to supply with water

Equity among Branch Canals(Equity Index)

Group 2:

Moderate to supply with Water

3 Equal groups

Group 3:

Difficult to supply with water

ESI = Satisfaction in head (upper-third)/satisfaction in tail (lower-third)

Equity along Branch Canals (ESI)

BCWUAs assume increased responsibility for WD

3: Value of Agricultural Output Water&Land Resources

It is subjected to many influences beyond the quality of irrigation service

In Summer = LE 4.441 / Fed

In Winter = LE 3.803 / Fed

Output per Unit Land

They may not be very sensitive to changes in quality of irrigation service. They should be examined at a large scale.

Outcomes of the Investments

Output per Unit Water

In Summer = LE 0.57 – 3.34 / CM

In Winter = LE 0.25 – 2.76 / CM

Rationalization Water&Land Resources

IWMD Model can achieve!

Subsidiarity:(vertical integration)“decision-taking at lowest possible level”

- framework, procedures & enforcing them

- expertise/technical support/implementation capacity

Geographic integration:(horizontal integration) “hydrological boundaries”

O&M integration:regrouping of all I&D and WRM responsibilities

Planning & implementation integration:IWMD = focal point/partner for all P&I activities

Thank You and Wish You Water&Land Resources

a Fruitful Conference