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Ergonomics. The science of fitting the job to the worker. MULTIDISCIPLINARY NATURE OF ERGONOMICS. Anatomy and physiology Engineering Psychology Engineering Medicine Anthropology Biomechanics. Decreased injury risk Increased productivity Decreased mistakes/rework Increased efficiency.

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Ergonomics l.jpg

Ergonomics

The science of fitting the job to the worker


Multidisciplinary nature of ergonomics l.jpg

MULTIDISCIPLINARY NATURE OF ERGONOMICS

  • Anatomy and physiology

  • Engineering Psychology

  • Engineering

  • Medicine

  • Anthropology

  • Biomechanics


Benefits of ergonomics l.jpg

Decreased injury risk

Increased productivity

Decreased mistakes/rework

Increased efficiency

Decreased lost work days

Decreased turnover

Improved morale

Benefits of Ergonomics


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HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

Ramazzinni described posture and disease in 1700s

Before WWI labor surplus

During WWII labor scarce

WWII mass production of sophisticated equipmentReading Errors

Control-Display Relations


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EROGONOMIC CONCEPTS

Tool design

Workstation Design

Material handling limits

Visual and auditory task design


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ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Noise

Vision

Thermal

Chemical


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PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS

  • Machine Pacing

  • Shift Work

  • Morale


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PHYSICAL

  • Posture

  • Force

  • Repetition

  • Manual Materials Handling


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TARGET REGIONS

  • Back

  • Upper Extremities

  • Lower Extremities


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DESIGN AND DISEASE

POSTUREDISCOMFORT

StandingLegs, Feet, Back

SittingNeck, Back, Shoulders

ReachingShoulders, Upper Arms

Head Bent BackCervical Region

Trunk Bent ForwardLumbar Region


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STATIC EXERTIONS

  • Holding activities

  • Carrying

  • Standing

  • Pushing and pulling

  • Arms raised


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EFFECTS OF STATIC EXERTION

When effort greater than or equal to 60 percent MVC blood flow almost completely interrupted.

15-20 percent MVC blood flow just about normal but still is associated with pain.

MVC less than or equal to eight percent can probably be maintained indefinitely.


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WORKSTATION GUIDELINES

Reduce static component and allow worker to use optimal posture

Optimal posture usually at midpoint of limbs range of motion

Avoid muscular insufficiency

Avoid forward reaches in excess of 16”

Elbows down close to the body flexor angle around 90 degrees


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WORKSTATION GUIDELINES (continued)

Sit-Stand preferred but rarely seen

Use gravity do not work against it

Avoid the need for excessive head movement

Avoid compression Ischemia


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WORKPLACE INDICATORS

  • Performance deterioration…Engineering

  • Quality Control problems

  • Absenteeism and turn-over…Human Resources

  • Musculoskeletal disorders…OSHA Logs WC reports

  • Complaints of fatigue and discomfort


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NIOSH LITERATURE SURVEY (NIOSH 97-141)

In 1994 32% of LWD cases (705,800) were result of overexertion or repetitive motion

367,424 Lifting 65% affected back

93,325 pushing/pulling (52%)

68,992 holding/carrying (58%)

92,576 repetitive motion, 55% wrist

83,483 NEC


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GROWING AWARENESS OF CTDs


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TOP FIVE CTD INCIDENCE INDUSTRIES BY RATE1990

Meatpacking

Poultry Processing

Household Refrigerator/Freezer

Motor Vehicle and Car Body

Men’s and Boy’s Trousers and Slacks


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TOP FIVE CTD INCIDENCE INDUSTRY CLASSES BY NUMBER1990

Meat Products

Motor Vehicles

Men’s and Boy’s Furnishings

Miscellaneous Plastic Products

Aircraft and Parts


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Muscle pain

Joint pain

Swelling

Numbness

Restricted motion

Repetitive stress injury

Repetitive motion injury

Cumulative trauma disorder

Musculoskeletal disorder

Types of Injuries


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Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Tendinitis

Tenosynovitis

Ganglion cyst

Tennis Elbow

Trigger Finger

DeQuervian’s Disease

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Bursitis

Synovitis

CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS

A class of musculoskeletal disorders arising from repeated biomechanical stress due to ergonomic hazards. Common names for these disorders are:


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Repetition

Awkward posture

Forceful exertion

Static posture

Mechanical contact stress

Temperature

Vibration

Ergonomic Risk Factors


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PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS

LA TimesHETA 90-013-2277

NIOSH PUBS 1-800-356-4674

US WestHETA 89-299-2230


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PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS(continued)

Significant Findings

Fear of being replaced by computers

Enlarged Jobs

Uncertainty about job future

Work pressure

Lack of co-worker support

Lack of productivity standard

Lack of participation in decision-making

Perception management not value ergo


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Ergonomic Controls

  • Engineering

  • Administrative

  • Work Practices


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CONTROL TECHNOLOGY

  • Tool redesign

  • Workstation redesign

  • Job methods

  • Early detection

  • Job rotation

  • Machine pacing

  • Medical surveillance


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REDUCTION OF REPETITION

Task Enlargement

Mechanization

Automation


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REDUCTION OF EXTREME JOINT MOVEMENT

Altering tool or controls

Workstation Design

Moving the Worker


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REDUCTION OF FORCE

Reducing the force

Spreading the force

Better mechanical advantage


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ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS HAZARD PREVENTION AND CONTROL

  • Rest-pause

  • Increase number of employees

  • Job rotation

  • Physical conditioning

  • Relief personnel

  • Medical management


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MATERIALS HANDLING

Lifting/Lowering

Pushing/Pulling

Carrying

Weights and Forces

Frequency of activities

Load Center of Gravity


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JOB RISK FACTORS

Weight lifted

Position of load center of gravity

Frequency

Posture

Torso Flexion

Twisting

Arms extended


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JOB DESIGN

Can reduce one-third of compensable LBP

Minimize reach and lift distances

Keep off floor

Work station design

Frequency

Relax time standard

Rotation

Work-Rest allowances


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JOB DESIGN (continued)

Minimize Weight

Mechanical aids

Carton capacity

Balance contents

Convert:

Carry to push/pull

Push over pull

Use large wheels


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TRAINING

Focus on awareness and avoidance

Get object as close to body as possible

Planning

Use of handling aids

Back Schools

Strength and fitness important


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WORKPLACE USE OF BACK BELTSNIOSH 94-122

  • Insufficient Data that belts significantly reduce trunk loading

  • Insufficient data that wearing reduces risk of injury based on IAP and EMG

  • May strain cardiovascular system

  • Insufficient data that discontinuation of use increases risk among healthy workers

NIOSH does not recommend as tool for prevention


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ORGANIZATIONAL INFLUENCES

Wage Systems

Quality Control

Management-Labor Relations

Machine-paced versus Self-paced work

Rest Breaks

Overtime

Shift Work


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RECOMMENDATIONS

  • 1. Identify Team Members

  • 2. Identify problem jobs

  • 3. Survey Employees

  • 4. Develop Plan of Action

  • 5. Select most feasible

  • 6. Implement on small scale

  • 7. Train

  • 8. Measure response

  • 9. Wider application or goto 4

  • 10. Goto 2


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REDESIGN EFFORT

Based on job analysis

Employee Feedback

Anthropometry

Fitting Trials (Prototyping)

Monitoring and Measurement


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REMEMBER WORKSTATION DESIGN GUIDELINES

Design where hands spend most of time

Normal reach envelope

Elbow height

Edge compression

Limit forward reaches to 16!


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WORK SITE ANALYSIS

  • Review OSHA 200 log

  • Employee interviews

  • Performance Data (turnover, etc.)

  • Video analysis of identified hazardous positions


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Management leadership and employee participation

Hazard information and reporting

Job hazard analysis and control

Training

MSD management

Program evaluation

Ergonomics Program Elements


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REFERENCES

Applications guide for the revised NIOSH lifting equation

NTIS PB94-176930 (703) 487-4650$12.00

NTIS PB91-226274 Scientific Documentation

Elements of Ergonomic Programs

NIOSH 97-1171-800-35-NIOSH

Musculoskeletal Disorders and Workplace Factors

NIOSH 97-141

Work Practices Guide for Manual Lifting

NIOSH 81-122


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REFERENCES (continued)

Cumulative Trauma Disorders: A Manual for MSDs of the Upper Limbs, Putz-Anderson

Fitting the Task to the Man, Grandjean

Taylor and Francis1-800-821-8312

Methodological Limitations in the Study of VDT use and UEMDs

Gerr, Marcus, Ortiz, American J. Ind. Med. 29:649-656 (1996)

Ergonomics: The Study of Work, OSHA 3125,www.OSHA.gov

Dan Ortiz, Georgia Tech(404) 894-8276

www.oshainfo.gatech.edu


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