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Ergonomics. The science of fitting the job to the worker. MULTIDISCIPLINARY NATURE OF ERGONOMICS. Anatomy and physiology Engineering Psychology Engineering Medicine Anthropology Biomechanics. Decreased injury risk Increased productivity Decreased mistakes/rework Increased efficiency.

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ergonomics

Ergonomics

The science of fitting the job to the worker

multidisciplinary nature of ergonomics
MULTIDISCIPLINARY NATURE OF ERGONOMICS
  • Anatomy and physiology
  • Engineering Psychology
  • Engineering
  • Medicine
  • Anthropology
  • Biomechanics
benefits of ergonomics
Decreased injury risk

Increased productivity

Decreased mistakes/rework

Increased efficiency

Decreased lost work days

Decreased turnover

Improved morale

Benefits of Ergonomics
historical perspective
HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

Ramazzinni described posture and disease in 1700s

Before WWI labor surplus

During WWII labor scarce

WWII mass production of sophisticated equipment Reading Errors

Control-Display Relations

erogonomic concepts
EROGONOMIC CONCEPTS

Tool design

Workstation Design

Material handling limits

Visual and auditory task design

environmental factors
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Noise

Vision

Thermal

Chemical

psychological stress
PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS
  • Machine Pacing
  • Shift Work
  • Morale
physical
PHYSICAL
  • Posture
  • Force
  • Repetition
  • Manual Materials Handling
target regions
TARGET REGIONS
  • Back
  • Upper Extremities
  • Lower Extremities
design and disease
DESIGN AND DISEASE

POSTUREDISCOMFORT

Standing Legs, Feet, Back

Sitting Neck, Back, Shoulders

Reaching Shoulders, Upper Arms

Head Bent Back Cervical Region

Trunk Bent Forward Lumbar Region

static exertions
STATIC EXERTIONS
  • Holding activities
  • Carrying
  • Standing
  • Pushing and pulling
  • Arms raised
effects of static exertion
EFFECTS OF STATIC EXERTION

When effort greater than or equal to 60 percent MVC blood flow almost completely interrupted.

15-20 percent MVC blood flow just about normal but still is associated with pain.

MVC less than or equal to eight percent can probably be maintained indefinitely.

workstation guidelines
WORKSTATION GUIDELINES

Reduce static component and allow worker to use optimal posture

Optimal posture usually at midpoint of limbs range of motion

Avoid muscular insufficiency

Avoid forward reaches in excess of 16”

Elbows down close to the body flexor angle around 90 degrees

workstation guidelines continued
WORKSTATION GUIDELINES (continued)

Sit-Stand preferred but rarely seen

Use gravity do not work against it

Avoid the need for excessive head movement

Avoid compression Ischemia

workplace indicators
WORKPLACE INDICATORS
  • Performance deterioration…Engineering
  • Quality Control problems
  • Absenteeism and turn-over…Human Resources
  • Musculoskeletal disorders…OSHA Logs WC reports
  • Complaints of fatigue and discomfort
niosh literature survey niosh 97 141
NIOSH LITERATURE SURVEY (NIOSH 97-141)

In 1994 32% of LWD cases (705,800) were result of overexertion or repetitive motion

367,424 Lifting 65% affected back

93,325 pushing/pulling (52%)

68,992 holding/carrying (58%)

92,576 repetitive motion, 55% wrist

83,483 NEC

top five ctd incidence industries by rate 1990
TOP FIVE CTD INCIDENCE INDUSTRIES BY RATE1990

Meatpacking

Poultry Processing

Household Refrigerator/Freezer

Motor Vehicle and Car Body

Men’s and Boy’s Trousers and Slacks

top five ctd incidence industry classes by number 1990
TOP FIVE CTD INCIDENCE INDUSTRY CLASSES BY NUMBER1990

Meat Products

Motor Vehicles

Men’s and Boy’s Furnishings

Miscellaneous Plastic Products

Aircraft and Parts

types of injuries
Muscle pain

Joint pain

Swelling

Numbness

Restricted motion

Repetitive stress injury

Repetitive motion injury

Cumulative trauma disorder

Musculoskeletal disorder

Types of Injuries
cumulative trauma disorders
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

Tendinitis

Tenosynovitis

Ganglion cyst

Tennis Elbow

Trigger Finger

DeQuervian’s Disease

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome

Bursitis

Synovitis

CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS

A class of musculoskeletal disorders arising from repeated biomechanical stress due to ergonomic hazards. Common names for these disorders are:

ergonomic risk factors
Repetition

Awkward posture

Forceful exertion

Static posture

Mechanical contact stress

Temperature

Vibration

Ergonomic Risk Factors
psychosocial factors
PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS

LA Times HETA 90-013-2277

NIOSH PUBS 1-800-356-4674

US West HETA 89-299-2230

psychosocial factors continued
PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS(continued)

Significant Findings

Fear of being replaced by computers

Enlarged Jobs

Uncertainty about job future

Work pressure

Lack of co-worker support

Lack of productivity standard

Lack of participation in decision-making

Perception management not value ergo

ergonomic controls
Ergonomic Controls
  • Engineering
  • Administrative
  • Work Practices
control technology
CONTROL TECHNOLOGY
  • Tool redesign
  • Workstation redesign
  • Job methods
  • Early detection
  • Job rotation
  • Machine pacing
  • Medical surveillance
reduction of repetition
REDUCTION OF REPETITION

Task Enlargement

Mechanization

Automation

reduction of extreme joint movement
REDUCTION OF EXTREME JOINT MOVEMENT

Altering tool or controls

Workstation Design

Moving the Worker

reduction of force
REDUCTION OF FORCE

Reducing the force

Spreading the force

Better mechanical advantage

administrative controls hazard prevention and control
ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS HAZARD PREVENTION AND CONTROL
  • Rest-pause
  • Increase number of employees
  • Job rotation
  • Physical conditioning
  • Relief personnel
  • Medical management
materials handling
MATERIALS HANDLING

Lifting/Lowering

Pushing/Pulling

Carrying

Weights and Forces

Frequency of activities

Load Center of Gravity

job risk factors
JOB RISK FACTORS

Weight lifted

Position of load center of gravity

Frequency

Posture

Torso Flexion

Twisting

Arms extended

job design
JOB DESIGN

Can reduce one-third of compensable LBP

Minimize reach and lift distances

Keep off floor

Work station design

Frequency

Relax time standard

Rotation

Work-Rest allowances

job design continued
JOB DESIGN (continued)

Minimize Weight

Mechanical aids

Carton capacity

Balance contents

Convert:

Carry to push/pull

Push over pull

Use large wheels

training
TRAINING

Focus on awareness and avoidance

Get object as close to body as possible

Planning

Use of handling aids

Back Schools

Strength and fitness important

workplace use of back belts niosh 94 122
WORKPLACE USE OF BACK BELTSNIOSH 94-122
  • Insufficient Data that belts significantly reduce trunk loading
  • Insufficient data that wearing reduces risk of injury based on IAP and EMG
  • May strain cardiovascular system
  • Insufficient data that discontinuation of use increases risk among healthy workers

NIOSH does not recommend as tool for prevention

organizational influences
ORGANIZATIONAL INFLUENCES

Wage Systems

Quality Control

Management-Labor Relations

Machine-paced versus Self-paced work

Rest Breaks

Overtime

Shift Work

recommendations
RECOMMENDATIONS
  • 1. Identify Team Members
  • 2. Identify problem jobs
  • 3. Survey Employees
  • 4. Develop Plan of Action
  • 5. Select most feasible
  • 6. Implement on small scale
  • 7. Train
  • 8. Measure response
  • 9. Wider application or goto 4
  • 10. Goto 2
redesign effort
REDESIGN EFFORT

Based on job analysis

Employee Feedback

Anthropometry

Fitting Trials (Prototyping)

Monitoring and Measurement

remember workstation design guidelines
REMEMBER WORKSTATION DESIGN GUIDELINES

Design where hands spend most of time

Normal reach envelope

Elbow height

Edge compression

Limit forward reaches to 16!

work site analysis
WORK SITE ANALYSIS
  • Review OSHA 200 log
  • Employee interviews
  • Performance Data (turnover, etc.)
  • Video analysis of identified hazardous positions
ergonomics program elements
Management leadership and employee participation

Hazard information and reporting

Job hazard analysis and control

Training

MSD management

Program evaluation

Ergonomics Program Elements
slide43

REFERENCES

Applications guide for the revised NIOSH lifting equation

NTIS PB94-176930 (703) 487-4650 $12.00

NTIS PB91-226274 Scientific Documentation

Elements of Ergonomic Programs

NIOSH 97-117 1-800-35-NIOSH

Musculoskeletal Disorders and Workplace Factors

NIOSH 97-141

Work Practices Guide for Manual Lifting

NIOSH 81-122

slide44

REFERENCES (continued)

Cumulative Trauma Disorders: A Manual for MSDs of the Upper Limbs, Putz-Anderson

Fitting the Task to the Man, Grandjean

Taylor and Francis 1-800-821-8312

Methodological Limitations in the Study of VDT use and UEMDs

Gerr, Marcus, Ortiz, American J. Ind. Med. 29:649-656 (1996)

Ergonomics: The Study of Work, OSHA 3125,www.OSHA.gov

Dan Ortiz, Georgia Tech (404) 894-8276

www.oshainfo.gatech.edu

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