Predator prey relationships
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Predator-Prey Relationships. What are Predators?. What are predators?. Carnivory Herbivory (plants vs. seeds) Cannibalism Parasitism. Human Attitudes and Predators. Humans perspectives Human persecution. OVERCOMING HISTORY. Fairy Tales: “Little Red Riding Hood”

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Predator-Prey Relationships

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Predator prey relationships

Predator-Prey Relationships

What are Predators?


What are predators

What are predators?

  • Carnivory

  • Herbivory (plants vs. seeds)

  • Cannibalism

  • Parasitism


Human attitudes and predators

Human Attitudes and Predators

  • Humans perspectives

  • Human persecution


Overcoming history

OVERCOMING HISTORY

  • Fairy Tales: “Little Red Riding Hood”

  • “ The Three Little Pigs”

  • Wolf attacks on humans


Overcoming history1

OVERCOMING HISTORY

  • Old attitudes die hard

  • Urban residents and predators


Predation in natural communities

Predation in Natural Communities

  • Almost all animals have significant predators- exceptions are:

  • Herbivores:Top predators:

  • Bison Grizzly

  • Elephant Lions

  • Rhinos Polar bear

  • Hippos Killer Whale


Predation in natural communities1

Predation in Natural Communities

  • Do predators regulate prey populations?

  • Ecosystems and predator communities


Major predators of the arctic nwr

Major predators of the Arctic NWR

Wolf

Polar Bear

Grizzly

Ermine

Arctic fox

Snowy Owl


Predator prey relationships response to prey

Predator-Prey RelationshipsResponse to Prey

1. Functional Response

Tendency of the predator to eat more of a prey species as the prey become more abundant


Predator prey relationships functional response

Predator-Prey RelationshipsFunctional Response


Predator prey relationships response to prey1

Predator-Prey RelationshipsResponse to Prey

Numerical Response

Number of predators increases with an increase in the density of prey animals


Predator prey relationships numerical response buckner and turnock 1965

Predator-Prey RelationshipsNumerical Response(Buckner and Turnock 1965)


Annual cycle of a prey population

Annual cycle of a prey population

100

Energy shortages

Energy shortages

Accidents

Disease

Accidents

Predation

Percentage of Population

Disease

Predation

J F M A M J J A S O N D


Population cycles

Population Cycles

Snowshoe hare

Lynx

No. in thousands

Years


Muskrat and mink

Muskrat and Mink

Paul Errington’s Classic study of muskrat populations


Muskrat info

Muskrat info

Habitat: wetlands, especially marshes

Food: marsh vegetation

Predators: mink, coyotes, great horned owls

eagles


Muskrat and predation

Muskrat and predation

  • Observations:

    • Predation and population size

    • Predation and individual vulnerability


Muskrat behavior

Muskrat Behavior

  • Population size and social intolerance

  • Population size and social outcasts


Muskrat and mink interactions conclusions

Muskrat and Mink interactions:Conclusions

  • Social interactions may be more important than predation in limiting numbers of prey.

  • The total effect of predation cannot be assessed simply by counting the number of animals killed by predators (selectivity)


Isle royale

Isle Royale

  • Size: 45 miles long x 9 miles wide

  • Protection: National Park established in 1940

    Wilderness designation in 1976

    National Biosphere Reserve 1980

  • A location of a long term study of the relationships between the moose and gray wolf


Predator prey relationships

Historically, two large ungulates occupied Isle Royale:

Woodland CaribouMoose


Caribou population

Caribou Population

  • Settlers arrived in late 19th century

  • Hunted caribou

  • Responsible for fire, and forest cutting

    Fires resulted in changing old-growth coniferous forests to younger deciduous forests

    Caribou became extinct on the island


Moose history

Moose History

  • Fires resulted in changing old-growth forests to younger forests

  • Around 1910, moose came across the ice from Minnesota and became established

  • Moose outcompeted woodland caribou; island was better habitat for the moose after fires (early succession, deciduous trees)


Wolfe population

Wolfe Population

  • Winter 1949, gray wolf arrives by crossing ice from mainland


Current populations on isle royale

Current Populations on Isle Royale

Winter 2000-2001

Moose850

Wolf 29


Present wolf population on isle royale

Present Wolf Population on Isle Royale

The wolf population is now divided into 2 territories, rather than the 3 that have been present for some time:

West Pack: gone

Middle Pack: 12

East Pack: 10

Roaming animals: 5-7


Food chain

Food Chain

Wolf

Moose Small rodents Beaver

Grouse berries

Vegetation


Wolf response to moose

Wolf Response to Moose

  • Functional Response: lots of moose,

  • Possible because wolfs are cooperative hunters


Wolf response to moose1

Wolf Response to Moose

  • Numerical Response: lots of moose,

  • wolves reproduce well

  • Immigration is unlikely since it depends on Lake Superior freezing.


Moose response to the wolf

Moose Response to the Wolf

  • Wary; formidable prey

  • Moose in good condition can withstand an attack by a wolf pack.

  • Can’t turn and run: wolf can sever back leg tendon which renders the moose helpless.


Moose response to the wolf1

Moose Response to the Wolf

  • most vulnerable moose are the very young and the old (infirm)

  • most killed moose show signs of malnutrition and disease (i.e. they are more vulnerable)

  • Males most vulnerable: go into winter in relatively poor shape because of rut


Wolf population

Wolf Population

Three major factors that control the wolf

population:

1. Moose numbers

2. Linear dominance hierarchy in

wolf population

3. Genetic diversity (inbreeding effects)


For more information

For more Information

www.admin.intu.edu/urel/PressRelease/feature/wolves/wolf.

Html

www.timberwolfinformation.org/programs/awp/awpi/Isle.htm

http://midwest.fws.gov/wolf/proposal/nr_71100.htm

Or simply type in key words: “wolf”,

“timber wolf”, or “Isle Royale”


How does the prey fight back

How Does The Prey Fight Back


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