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Old Testament. Biblical Backgrounds. The Rise and Fall of Saul. Maps by David P. Barrett, used by permission. Tabernacle in Shiloh. 1 Samuel 4:1-2.

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the rise and fall of saul

Old Testament

Biblical Backgrounds

The Rise and Fall

of Saul

Maps by David P. Barrett, used by permission

1 samuel 4 1 2

1 Samuel 4:1-2

Thus the word of Samuel came to all Israel. Now Israel went out to meet the Philistines in battle and camped beside Ebenezer while the Philistines camped in Aphek.

And the Philistines drew up in battle array to meet Israel. When the battle spread, Israel was defeated before the Philistines who killed about four thousand men on the battlefield.

1 samuel 4 3

1 Samuel 4:3

When the people came into the camp, the elders of Israel said, “Why has the Lord defeated us today before the Philistines? Let us take to ourselves from Shiloh the ark of the covenant of the Lord, that it may come among us and deliver us from the power of our enemies.”

1 samuel 4 4

1 Samuel 4:4

So the people sent to Shiloh and from there they carried the ark of the covenant of the Lord of hosts who sits above the cherubim; and the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, were there with the ark of the covenant of God.

1 samuel 4 21 22

1 Samuel 4:21-22

And she called the boy Ichabod, saying, “The glory has departed from Israel,” because the ark of God was taken and because of her father-in-law and her husband.

And she said, “The glory has departed from Israel, for the ark of God was taken.”




 Ekron

 Ashdod

 BethShemesh

Valley of Sorek

 Gath

Bethlehem 

 Ashkelon


 Gaza


samuel as judge

Samuel as Judge

A new call to repentance

1 Samuel 7

battle at mizpah 1 samuel 7 10 11
Battle at Mizpah1 Samuel 7:10-11
  • Alliance of five kings
  • Prayer to the Lord
  • Answer from the skies
  • Victory
  • Pursuit of enemy down the valley
1 samuel 8 4 5

1 Samuel 8:4-5

Then all the elders of Israel gathered together and came to Samuel at Ramah; 5 and they said to him, “Behold, you have grown old, and your sons do not walk in your ways. Now appoint a king for us to judge us like all the nations.”

israel s request for a king
Israel’s Request for a King
  • Initiated because of the ungodly successors to Samuel
  • They sought the Lord to choose their king
  • God had promised they would have a king (Deuteronomy 17:14-17)
what it means to have a king
What it means to have a king
  • He will draft your sons into his military (8:11).
  • He will conscript people to do his plowing and harvesting and to manufacture his weapons of war (8:12).
  • He will take your daughters for household duties (8:13).
what it means to have a king1
What it means to have a king
  • He will take your lands and vineyards and groves and give them to his retainers (8:14).
  • He will tax the produce of your land (8:15).
  • He will take your servants and animals (8:16).
  • He will take YOU (8:17).
1 samuel 8 4 6

1 Samuel 8:4-6

Then all the elders of Israel gathered together and came to Samuel at Ramah; 5 and they said to him, “Behold, you have grown old, and your sons do not walk in your ways. Now appoint a king for us to judge us like all the nations.” 6 But the thing was displeasing in the sight of Samuel when they said, “Give us a king to judge us.” And Samuel prayed to the LORD.

1 samuel 8

1 Samuel 9-10

1 Samuel 8

A king chosen

The people come to Samuel with their request

Saul comes to Samuel about lost donkeys

All Israel comes to anoint Saul

A king requested

1 samuel 9 1

1 Samuel 9:1

Now there was a man of Benjamin whose name was Kish the son of Abiel, the son of Zeror, the son of Becorath, the son of Aphiah, the son of a Benjamite, a mighty man of valor.

1 samuel 9 2

1 Samuel 9:2

He had a son whose name was Saul, a choice and handsome man, and there was not a more handsome person than he among the sons of Israel; from his shoulders and up he was taller than any of the people.

1 samuel 9 3

1 Samuel 9:3

Now the donkeys of Kish, Saul\'s father, were lost. So Kish said to his son Saul, “Take now with you one of the servants, and arise, go search for the donkeys.”

1 samuel 9 4

1 Samuel 9:4

He passed through the hill country of Ephraim and passed through the land of Shalishah, but they did not find them. Then they passed through the land of Shaalim, but they were not there. Then he passed through the land of the Benjamites, but they did not find them.

A circuitous search
  • Seeking a seer

Hill Country

of Ephraim

1 samuel 9 15 16

1 Samuel 9:15-16

Now a day before Saul’s coming, the LORD had revealed this to Samuel saying, 16 “About this time tomorrow I will send you a man from the land of Benjamin, and you shall anoint him to be prince over My people Israel; and he will deliver My people from the hand of the Philistines. For I have regarded My people, because their cry has come to Me.”

A circuitous search
  • Seeking a seer
  • Samuel anoints Saul

Hill Country

of Ephraim

1 samuel 10 17 18

1 Samuel 10:17-18

Thereafter Samuel called the people together to the LORD at Mizpah; 18 and he said to the sons of Israel, “Thus says the LORD, the God of Israel, ‘I brought Israel up from Egypt, and I delivered you from the hand of the Egyptians and from the power of all the kingdoms that were oppressing you.’”

1 samuel 10 19

1 Samuel 10:19

“But you have today rejected your God, who delivers you from all your calamities and your distresses; yet you have said, ‘No, but set a king over us!’ Now therefore, present yourselves before the LORD by your tribes and by your clans.”

1 samuel 10 20 21

1 Samuel 10:20-21

Thus Samuel brought all the tribes of Israel near, and the tribe of Benjamin was taken by lot. 21 Then he brought the tribe of Benjamin near by its families, and the Matrite family was taken. And Saul the son of Kish was taken; but when they looked for him, he could not be found.

1 samuel 10 22 23

1 Samuel 10:22-23

Therefore they inquired further of the LORD, “Has the man come here yet?” So the LORD said, “Behold, he is hiding himself by the baggage.” 23 So they ran and took him from there, and when he stood among the people, he was taller than any of the people from his shoulders upward.

1 samuel 10 24

1 Samuel 10:24

Samuel said to all the people, “Do you see him whom the LORD has chosen? Surely there is no one like him among all the people.” So all the people shouted and said, “Long live the king!”


Now Nahash the Ammonite came up and besieged Jabesh-gilead; and all the men of Jabesh said to Nahash, “Make a covenant with us and we will serve you.”

(1 Samuel 11:1).






But Nahash the Ammonite said to them, “I will make it with you on this condition, that I will gouge out the right eye of every one of you, thus I will make it a reproach on all Israel.” (1 Samuel 11:2).






The elders of Jabesh said to him, “Let us alone for seven days, that we may send messengers throughout the territory of Israel. Then, if there is no one to deliver us, we will come out to you.” (1 Samuel 11:3).





1 samuel 11 5

1 Samuel 11:5

Now behold, Saul was coming from the field behind the oxen, and he said, “What is the matter with the people that they weep?” So they related to him the words of the men of Jabesh.

1 samuel 11 6

1 Samuel 11:6

Then the Spirit of God came upon Saul mightily when he heard these words, and he became very angry.

1 samuel 11 7

1 Samuel 11:7

He took a yoke of oxen and cut them in pieces, and sent them throughout the territory of Israel by the hand of messengers, saying, “Whoever does not come out after Saul and after Samuel, so shall it be done to his oxen.” Then the dread of the LORD fell on the people, and they came out as one man.


The next morning Saul put the people in three companies; and they came into the midst of the camp at the morning watch and struck down the Ammonites until the heat of the day.

(1 Samuel 11:8a).






Those who survived were scattered, so that no two of them were left together. (1 Samuel 11:8b).





1 samuel 11 12 13

1 Samuel 11:12-13

Then the people said to Samuel, “Who is he that said, ‘Shall Saul reign over us?’ Bring the men, that we may put them to death.” 13 But Saul said, “Not a man shall be put to death this day, for today the LORD has accomplished deliverance in Israel.”

1 samuel 11 14

1 Samuel 11:14

Then Samuel said to the people, “Come and let us go to Gilgal and renew the kingdom there.”



So all the people went to Gilgal, and there they made Saul king before the LORD in Gilgal.

(1 Samuel 11:15a).




act 1

Act 2

Act 3

Scene One

Saul meets Samuel & is anointed by him (9-10)

Act 1

Scene Two

Success in battle with the help of God (11).

Scene Three

Saul’s failure with Samuel & Jonathan (13-14).

1 samuel 15 1

1 Samuel 15:1

Then Samuel said to Saul, “The LORD sent me to anoint you as king over His people, over Israel; now therefore, listen to the words of the LORD.”


“Thus says the LORD of hosts, ‘I will punish Amalek for what he did to Israel, how he set himself against him on the way while he was coming up from Egypt.’ (1 Samuel 15:2).



“Now go and strike Amalek and utterly destroy all that he has, and do not spare him; but put to death both man and woman, child and infant, ox and sheep, camel and donkey.’” (1 Samuel 15:3).


1 samuel 15 7 8

1 Samuel 15:7-8

So Saul defeated the Amalekites, from Havilah as you go to Shur, which is east of Egypt. 8 He captured Agag the king of the Amalekites alive, and utterly destroyed all the people with the edge of the sword.

1 samuel 15 9

1 Samuel 15:9

But Saul and the people spared Agag and the best of the sheep, the oxen, the fatlings, the lambs, and all that was good, and were not willing to destroy them utterly; but everything despised and worthless, that they utterly destroyed.

1 samuel 15 22

1 Samuel 15:22

Samuel said, “Has the LORD as much delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices

As in obeying the voice of the LORD?

Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice,

And to heed than the fat of rams.

1 samuel 15 23

1 Samuel 15:23

“For rebellion is as the sin of divination,

And insubordination is as iniquity and idolatry.

Because you have rejected the word of the LORD,

He has also rejected you from being king.”

1 samuel 15 27 28

1 Samuel 15:27-28

As Samuel turned to go, Saul seized the edge of his robe, and it tore. 28 So Samuel said to him, “The LORD has torn the kingdom of Israel from you today and has given it to your neighbor, who is better than you.”

act 11

Act 2

Act 3

Scene One

Saul meets Samuel & is anointed by him (9-10)

Saul meets Samuel & is condemned by him (15).

Act 1

Scene Two

Success in battle with the help of God (11).

Success in battle with the help of David (17-18).

Scene Three

Saul’s failure with Samuel & Jonathan (13-14).

1 samuel 17 1 3

1 Samuel 17:1-3

1 Now the Philistines gathered their armies for battle; and they were gathered at Socoh which belongs to Judah, and they camped between Socoh and Azekah, in Ephes-dammim.

2 And Saul and the men of Israel were gathered, and camped in the valley of Elah, and drew up in battle array to encounter the Philistines.

3 And the Philistines stood on the mountain on one side while Israel stood on the mountain on the other side, with the valley between them.

1 samuel 17 4

1 Samuel 17:4

Then a champion came out from the armies of the Philistines named Goliath, from Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span.


Robert Waldo

Died July 15, 1940

8 feet, 11 inches

1 samuel 17 5 7

1 Samuel 17:5-7

5 And he had a bronze helmet on his head, and he was clothed with scale-armor which weighed five thousand shekels of bronze.

6He also had bronze greaves on his legs and a bronze javelin slung between his shoulders.

7 And the shaft of his spear was like a weaver’s beam, and the head of his spear weighed six hundred shekels of iron; his shield-carrier also walked before him.

1 samuel 17 8 9

1 Samuel 17:8-9

8 And he stood and shouted to the ranks of Israel, and said to them, “Why do you come out to draw up in battle array? Am I not the Philistine and you servants of Saul? Choose a man for yourselves and let him come down to me. 9 If he is able to fight with me and kill me, then we will become your servants; but if I prevail against him and kill him, then you shall become our servants and serve us.”

1 samuel 17 49

1 Samuel 17:49

And David put his hand into his bag and took from it a stone and slung it, and struck the Philistine on his forehead. And the stone sank into his forehead, so that he fell on his face to the ground.

ark versus dagon

David versus Goliath

Goliath saw in David what he thought was an easy victory

Ark versus Dagon

Dagon was found face down before the Ark

Goliath fell on his face before David

Dagon was found with his head removed which led to an enduring practice

David cut off Goliath’s head and kept it as a trophy

Ark had been captured by the Philistines and placed in the Temple of Dagon

Dagon was seen by all to be a dead idol of stone

The Lord is seen to be the living God (17:26).

act 12

Act 2

Act 3

Scene One

Saul meets Samuel & is anointed by him (9-10)

Saul meets Samuel & is condemned by him (15).

Act 1

Scene Two

Success in battle with the help of God (11).

Success in battle with the help of David (17-18).

Scene Three

Saul’s failure with Samuel & Jonathan (13-14).

Saul’s failure with David & Jonathan (19-27).


David the Fugitive







David flees

from the


of Saul

David and Jonathan make a covenant

David flees to Gath

Saul Pursues David







David is

assisted by


David is

assisted by

the King of


David assisted by Michal

Jonathan helps David

David cuts Saul’s robe

David takes Saul’s spear/jug

David assisted by the Lord

David assisted by

Circumstances, Abigail,



Now it came about in those days that the Philistines gathered their armed camps for war, to fight against Israel.

(1 Samuel 28:1a).





So the Philistines gathered together and came and camped in Shunem (1 Samuel 28:4a).



…and Saul gathered all Israel together and they camped in Gilboa.

(1 Samuel 28:4b).


1 samuel 28 5 7

1 Samuel 28:5-7

When Saul saw the camp of the Philistines, he was afraid and his heart trembled greatly. 6 When Saul inquired of the LORD, the LORD did not answer him, either by dreams or by Urim or by prophets. 7 Then Saul said to his servants, “Seek for me a woman who is a medium, that I may go to her and inquire of her.” And his servants said to him, “Behold, there is a woman who is a medium at En-dor.”


Then Saul disguised himself by putting on other clothes, and went, he and two men with him, and they came to the woman by night

(1 Samuel 28:8)



1 samuel 28 11 12

1 Samuel 28:11-12

Then the woman said, “Whom shall I bring up for you?” And he said, “Bring up Samuel for me.” 12 When the woman saw Samuel, she cried out with a loud voice; and the woman spoke to Saul, saying, “Why have you deceived me? For you are Saul.”

possible interpretations
Possible Interpretations
  • This was Samuel speaking from the grave: “The woman saw Samuel” (28:12).
  • A Demonic Manifestation
  • A Trick of the Woman
1 samuel 28 13

1 Samuel 28:13

The king said to her, “Do not be afraid; but what do you see?” And the woman said to Saul, “I see a divine being coming up out of the earth.”

1 samuel 28 14

1 Samuel 28:14

He said to her, “What is his form?” And she said, “An old man is coming up, and he is wrapped with a robe.” And Saul knew that it was Samuel, and he bowed with his face to the ground and did homage.


Now the Philistines were fighting against Israel, and the men of Israel fled from before the Philistines and fell slain on Mount Gilboa (1 Samuel 31:1).

act 13

Act 2

Act 3

Scene One

Saul meets Samuel & is anointed by him (9-10)

Saul meets Samuel & is condemned by him (15).

Saul meets Samuel and his death is foretold (28).

Act 1

Scene Two

Success in battle with the help of God (11).

Success in battle with the help of David (17-18).

Failure in battle and suicide (31).

Scene Three

Saul’s failure with Samuel & Jonathan (13-14).

Saul’s failure with David & Jonathan (19-27).

1 samuel 31 8 9

1 Samuel 31:8-9

It came about on the next day when the Philistines came to strip the slain, that they found Saul and his three sons fallen on Mount Gilboa. 9 They cut off his head and stripped off his weapons, and sent them throughout the land of the Philistines, to carry the good news to the house of their idols and to the people.

They put his weapons in the temple of Ashtaroth, and they fastened his body to the wall of Beth-shan (1 Samuel 31:10).

Now when the inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead heard what the Philistines had done to Saul… (1 Samuel 31:11).




…all the valiant men rose and walked all night, and took the body of Saul and the bodies of his sons from the wall of Beth-shan, and they came to Jabesh and burned them there. (1 Samuel 31:12).