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1. Bilingualism: Culture and Language Change Cultures and languages do not exist in isolation, nor are they unchanging. Cultures and languages are constantly in flux, sometimes due to internal forces, i.e. conflicts of interest among groups, and sometimes from contact with other languages (Foley 2001: 381).
2. No society is homogeneous Internal divisions
Different beliefs and practices
Hierarchy of languages
3. Language contact: Language transformation
Changes in attitudes and practices
Adjusting to other languages
Overtime: language shifts
Reasons: historical, economic and political
Higher status versus lower status
4. Power struggles and language death Equally in multicultural as well as in small-scale societies (Australia versus Yimas village)
Example one: Hungarian language in Austria
---positive versus negative social meanings
---peasant life versus modern life
5. Strategies utilized by Bilinguals Code switching and code mixing
Code switching: When bilinguals integrate linguistic resources from two languages within the same discourse segment, this strategy has a number of linguistic and interactional functions
6. Code Switching: linguistic and interactional functions to express a more precise meaning
Then I woke up Sunday Morning.
She turned sixty-five in July.
to compensate for memory lapses
Necesito un string para la kite
I need a string for the kite
7. Code Switching: linguistic and interactional functions, 2 As an attention-getting device
Now let me do it. Put your feet down. Mira
To express social value
Society hii aisii hai
The society is like that.
8. Code Mixing
Is a linguistic process that incorporates material from a second language in a base language: morphological markers.
To watch: Watchando
9. Language Death Typically based on economic and political imperatives
Historical reasons: overwhelming forces
Central american Case: colonialism
Assimilative policies: North america and Australia
10. Language death among the Arapaho
English associated with power
Bilingualism becomes an asset
Bilingualism gives way to monolingualism
Indigenous language loses prestige
11. Other reasons for language death Being outnumbered: Normandy, Hungarian speakers of Austria
Negative attitudes towards local languages
Tiwa opposite example
Cultural imperialism; mass media, Hollywood
12. Discussion Question
What do you think is the future of most languages in the world? What can we do to prevent the death of these languages.