Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition
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Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition. Bilingualism. Bilingualism means being fluent in two languages Approximately ½ of the people in the world are native speakers of more than one language

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Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition

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Bilingualism and second language acquisition

Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition


Bilingualism

Bilingualism

  • Bilingualism means being fluent in two languages

  • Approximately ½ of the people in the world are native speakers of more than one language

  • It is natural for children acquiring more than one language to mix the languages as they are acquiring them

  • Bilingual children appear to acquire both languages in the same stages and at same rate as monolingual children


Bilingualism con t

Bilingualism (con’t)

  • Metalinguistic awareness = consciousness about language including a better understanding of symbol-object relations and sociolinguistic practices

    Bilingual children have better metalinguistic awareness than monolingual children

  • Code-switching = moving back and forth between two or more languages during a single speech event

    Bilingual individuals code-switch when speaking to other bilingual individuals


Theories of bilingual language acquisition

Theories of Bilingual Language Acquisition

  • Unitary System Hypothesis

    Children first construct one lexicon and one grammar, and then later add another.

  • Separate Systems Hypothesis

    Children simultaneously develop two lexicons and two grammars, one for each of the languages.


Second language acquisition l2 s

Second Language Acquisition (L2’s)

  • The acquisition of a second language AFTER the first has been completely acquired.

  • Fundamental Difference Hypothesis = the process of second language acquisition is different than bilingual language acquisition process.

  • L2’s go through predictable stages in acquiring the second languages that are intermediate between their first and second languages.

  • Many L2’s never reach full fluency, and/or frequently retain systematic errors in their second language.

  • About 8 years old appears to be the boundary for complete fluency (phonetically, morphologically and syntactically) in a second language.

  • Each year delay makes a significant difference in fluency


Methods of teaching l2 s

Methods of Teaching L2’s

  • Grammar Translation

    Involves memorization of vocabulary, morphological and syntactic rules.

  • The Direct Method

    Involves immersion in the second language without any memorization or study of phonology or syntax.


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