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Muscle Physiology. Human Anatomy and Physiology II Oklahoma City Community College. Dennis Anderson. Muscle Tissue. Skeletal Muscle Cardiac Muscle Smooth Muscle. Skeletal Muscle. Long cylindrical cells Many nuclei per cell Striated Voluntary Rapid contractions. Cardiac Muscle.

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Muscle Physiology

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Muscle physiology

Muscle Physiology

Human Anatomy and Physiology II

Oklahoma City Community College

Dennis Anderson

Muscle tissue

Muscle Tissue

  • Skeletal Muscle

  • Cardiac Muscle

  • Smooth Muscle

Skeletal muscle

Skeletal Muscle

  • Long cylindrical cells

  • Many nuclei per cell

  • Striated

  • Voluntary

  • Rapid contractions

Cardiac muscle

Cardiac Muscle

  • Branching cells

  • One or two nuclei per cell

  • Striated

  • Involuntary

  • Medium speed contractions

Smooth muscle

Smooth Muscle

  • Fusiform cells

  • One nucleus per cell

  • Nonstriated

  • Involuntary

  • Slow, wave-like contractions

Microanatomy of skeletal muscle

Microanatomy of Skeletal Muscle

Muscle physiology

Z line

Z line

Muscle physiology

H Band

Sarcomere relaxed

Sarcomere Relaxed

Sarcomere partially contracted

Sarcomere Partially Contracted

Sarcomere completely contracted

Sarcomere Completely Contracted

Muscle physiology


Binding Site


Muscle physiology


Neuromuscular junction

Neuromuscular Junction

Acetylcholine opens na channel

Acetylcholine Opens Na+ Channel

Muscle contraction summary

Muscle Contraction Summary

  • Nerve impulse reaches myoneural junction

  • Acetylcholine is released from motor neuron

  • Ach binds with receptors in the muscle membrane to allow sodium to enter

  • Sodium influx will generate an action potential in the sarcolemma

Muscle contraction continued

Muscle Contraction Continued

  • Action potential travels down T tubule

  • Sarcoplamic reticulum releases calcium

  • Calcium binds with troponin to move the troponin, tropomyosin complex

  • Binding sites in the actin filament are exposed

Muscle contraction continued1

Muscle Contraction Continued

  • Myosin head attach to binding sites and create a power stroke

  • ATP detaches myosin heads and energizes them for another contaction

  • When action potentials cease the muscle stop contracting

Motor unit all the muscle cells controlled by one nerve cell

Motor UnitAll the muscle cells controlled by one nerve cell

Motor unit ratios

Motor Unit Ratios

  • Back muscles

    • 1:100

  • Finger muscles

    • 1:10

  • Eye muscles

    • 1:1

Muscle physiology



Creatine + ATP

Creatine phosphate + ADP


  • Molecule capable of storing ATP energy

Creatine phosphate

Creatine + ATP

Creatine Phosphate

  • Molecule with stored ATP energy

Creatine phosphate+ ADP

Muscle fatique

Muscle Fatique

  • Lack of oxygen causes ATP deficit

  • Lactic acid builds up from anaerobic respiration

Muscle atrophy

Muscle Atrophy

  • Weakening and shrinking of a muscle

  • May be caused

    • Immobilization

    • Loss of neural stimulation

Muscle hypertrophy

Muscle Hypertrophy

  • Enlargement of a muscle

  • More capillaries

  • More mitochondria

  • Caused by

    • Strenuous exercise

    • Steroid hormones

Steroid hormones

Steroid Hormones

  • Stimulate muscle growth and hypertrophy

Muscle tonus

Muscle Tonus

  • Tightness of a muscle

  • Some fibers always contracted



  • Sustained contraction of a muscle

  • Result of a rapid succession of nerve impulses



Refractory period

Refractory Period

  • Brief period of time in which muscle cells will not respond to a stimulus



Refractory periods

Refractory Periods

Skeletal Muscle

Cardiac Muscle

Isometric contraction

Isometric Contraction

  • Produces no movement

  • Used in

    • Standing

    • Sitting

    • Posture

Isotonic contraction

Isotonic Contraction

  • Produces movement

  • Used in

    • Walking

    • Moving any part of the body

The end


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