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In-text citations. In-text citations – used to put important ________ information in _______________________ after a paraphrase or quote NOTE: Should NOT have more than 1/3 of your paper cited . Why Use In-Text Citations? .

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In text citations
In-text citations

  • In-text citations – used to put

    important ________ information in

    _______________________ after a

    paraphrase or quote

  • NOTE: Should NOT have more than 1/3 of your paper cited

Why use in text citations
Why Use In-Text Citations?

  • Used within your research paper to refer readers to the source in the Works Cited

    • In case the reader wants to check it out!

  • Gives credit where credit is due

    • *No in-text citation = _______________________

In text citations use when
In-Text Citations: Use when…

  • ______________ an original idea from a source

  • ________________ that is NOT “common knowledge”

  • ________________ another person’s idea

    • For example, Literary criticism!

  • ________________

In text citations mla
In-Text Citations: MLA

  • For MLA style, in-text citations should include:

    • 1. ____________________ _____________ _____________

    • 2. ________________ ____________________

  • Citation comes BEFORE the closing punctuation mark.

    Example, Quotation from GALE eBook: “He received honorary degrees from Harvard, Yale, and Oxford universities” (Benson 583).

    Example, Paraphrase: Benjamin Franklin was educated at Harvard, Oxford, and Yale universities (Benson 583).

Set up line
Set-Up Line

  • Set-up Line – a “signal phrase” that uses the

    ___________________ ___________ to “set up” the piece

    of information

    • If you use a set-up line, you do NOT need to put the author’s name in parentheses.

      Example, direct quotation: As Sonia Benson explains, “In 1787, Franklin attended the Constitutional Convention, during which members wrote the U.S. Constitution” (583).

      Example, paraphrase: Sonia Benson tells us that Benjamin Franklin played a part in creating the U.S. Constitution in 1787 (583).

In text citations no page numbers
In-Text Citations: No Page Numbers

  • If you’re using an internet source that has no page

    numbers, such as an article, then only

    include the ____________________ ___________

    _____________ in the citation.

    Example from a New Yorker article found online: “Even within Apple, Jobs was known for taking credit for others’ ideas” (Gladwell).

In text citations author unknown
In-Text Citations: Author Unknown

  • When the author’s name is not given, the first thing

    in parentheses should be the ______________

    word in your entry for the source in your Works Cited


    • Usually the first word in the title

    • Not “the”

    • In quotes

Author unknown example
Author Unknown: Example

Example of a Paraphrase from


"Barack Hussein Obama, Jr.." 2014. The Biography.comwebsite. May 01 2014.

Paraphrase: Barack was primarily raised by his mother because his father was studying in Massachusetts before his parents split apart (“Barack”).

Activity worksheet
Activity: Worksheet

  • Complete the worksheet, “Practice with In-Text Citations,” by filling in the blanks with the required citation information. Follow the directions on the worksheet.

  • You may work with partners if you’d like, but I will collect a worksheet from every student.

For further information
For further information:

**Purdue Owl: MLA Formatting and Style Guide (edited 2014) (

hackerandbooks.comResearch and Documentation Online:5th edition

Bedford Writing Center:

Portland State University Writing Center