In text citations
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In-Text Citations. How to properly cite sources within your paper. In-Text Citations: The Basics. In-Text citations (also known as parenthetical citations) are used to help your reader identify the source of the information you provided

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In-Text Citations

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In text citations

In-Text Citations

How to properly cite sources within your paper


In text citations the basics

In-Text Citations: The Basics

  • In-Text citations (also known as parenthetical citations) are used to help your reader identify the source of the information you provided

  • What you place inside the parenthesis is determined by the medium of the source and the source’s entry on your Works Cited page

  • You should include an in-text citation any time you use a source (it’s better to be safe than sorry!)


In text citations the basics1

In-Text Citations: The Basics

  • The reader should be able to identify exactly what source your in-text citation is referring to

  • Whatever word/name/phrase you include in your in-text citation should be the first word/name/phrase that appears in the corresponding entry

  • It’s acceptable to abbreviate long titles


Example

Example

  • If this is your source on your Works Cited page:

    Burke, Kenneth. Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. Berkeley: U of California P, 1966. 3-10. Print.

  • Then your in-text citation will look like this:

    Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).

Symbol-using animals has been placed in parenthesis because it is a label that Burke created and comes directly from the source

Name of author, which appears first in the citation on the Works Cited page

Page # where information is located

Purdue Owl source


Example1

Example

  • If this is your source on your Works Cited page:

    "The Impact of Global Warming in North America." GLOBAL WARMING: Early Signs. 1999. Web. 23 Mar. 2009.

  • Then your in-text citation will look like this:

    We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has “more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change” (“Impact of Global Warming”).

The period comes after the parenthesis; there is not a period before the citation

The title has been abbreviated; but you can still identify the source on the Works Cited page

Purdue Owl source


Including information from sources

Including Information from Sources

  • Do NOT merely string together direct quotes

  • Introduce direct quotations; weave outside info. into your paper when it is both relevant and supportive

    • Social media can have negative effects on a user’s self esteem, as recognized by the U.S. Institute of Psychology, “People who engage in social media for more than four hours a day are more likely to develop depression than those who do not” (Miller 34).

    • Colon cancer is a growing concern that “affects three out of every five adults over the age of fifty-five in the United States” (“Colon Cancer”).

    • Paraphrasing, summarizing, and using direct quotes have a specific rhetorical purpose – you will likely utilize all three


Notes

Notes

  • Remember to use common sense and good judgment when citing sources

  • Ask yourself: Is this really common knowledge?


Resources

Resources:

  • Owl.english.purdue.edu

    • (Google “Purdue Owl MLA in-text citations”)

  • [email protected]

    • Please email me with any questions or concerns

  • Brooke's Google Site

    • https://sites.google.com/site/brookeswritinglabnhhs/


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