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In Text Citations. http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/11.htm https://ilrb.cf.ac.uk/citingreferences/apaactiv1/index.html. The Three Main Elements. 1. Author 2. Publication year 3. Page or paragraph number, which is only required for direct quotations. Three basic formats:. In the sentence:

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In text citations

In Text Citations

http://writingcenter.waldenu.edu/11.htm

https://ilrb.cf.ac.uk/citingreferences/apaactiv1/index.html


The three main elements
The Three Main Elements

  • 1. Author

  • 2. Publication year

  • 3. Page or paragraph number, which is only required for direct quotations


Three basic formats
Three basic formats:

  • In the sentence:

    According to Kokkinos (2007), employers cause burnout when employees are stressed by too much work.

  • Parenthetically:

    Employers cause burnout when employees are stressed by too much work (Kokkinos, 2007).

  • Quotations:The page or paragraph number is also included parenthetically:

    Kokkinos (2007) described burnout as "a negative affective response occurring as result of chronic work stress" (p. 2).


More formats
More formats….

  • Pleaserefertothe Word document: “APA in textcitationsmaster guide” for more specificformatsincludingmultipleauthors, electronicsources, authorunknown, etc.


Hints
Hints:

  • Hint #1 publication date

  • Hint #2 (publication date)

  • Hint #3 Author & Author

  • Hint #4 publication date;

  • Hint #5 & Author, 2004)


Question
Question:

  • Of thepreviouscitations, whichisanexample of a/an

  • A. In textcitation

  • B. Example of a citationthat has beenpreviouslymentioned

  • C. Paraphrase(occurstwice)

  • D. Example of citationwithmultipleauthors


Common formats
Common formats

Basic format for a summary or a paraphrase

  • Yanovski and Yanovski (2002) explained that sibutramine suppresses appetite by blocking the reuptake of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain (p. 594).

  • Sibutramine suppresses appetite by blocking the reuptake of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain (Yanovski & Yanovski, 2002, p. 594).


Electronic source
Electronic source

General

When possible, cite electronic sources, including online sources, as you would any other source, giving the author and the year.

Atkinson (2001) found that children who spent at least four hours a day watching TV were less likely to engage in adequate physical activity during the week.

Unknown author

If no author is named, mention the title of the source in the signal phrase or give the first word or two of the title in the parentheses

The body’s basal metabolic rate, or BMR, is a measure of its at-rest energy requirement (“Exercise,” 2003).

Unknown date

When the date is unknown, use the abbreviation “n.d.” (for “no date”).

Attempts to establish a definitive link between television programming and children’s eating habits have been problematic (Magnus, n.d.).


Quotations

Quotations

APA ordinarily requires page numbers for quotations…. When an electronic source lacks stable numbered pages, include paragraph numbers or headings to help readers locate the particular passage being cited. If the source contains headings, cite the appropriate heading in parentheses; you may also indicate the paragraph under the heading that you are referring to.

Hoppin and Taveras (2004) pointed out that several other medications were classified by the Drug Enforcement Administration as having the “potential for abuse” (Weight-Loss Drugs section, para. 6).


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