Four Types of Organic Molecules. Made by cells Contains carbon. Importance of Carbon. Although cells are 70-95% water, the rest of composed mainly of carbon compounds. Proteins, carbohydrates, DNA, and other molecules are compounds of carbon bonded to other elements.
Made by cells
2. Lipids-energy storage
3. Proteins-structure, movement, enzymes
4. Nucleic acids-store and transmit hereditary information.
are called polymers
Created by linking
called monomers.All four are macromolecules because of their large size.
Hydrolysis is involved in which of the following?
Formation of starch
Hydrogen bond formation between amino acids
Peptide bonds in proteins
The hydrophobic interactions in lipids
The digestion of maltose to glucose
monosaccharides - one ring sugars
glucose, galactose and fructose
* A 6-carbon sugar
* Found in peas.
* A 5-carbon sugar
* A 6-carbon sugar
* the sugar that sweetens fruit
* The sugar in our blood
Glucose + fructose = Sucrose (table sugar)
Glucose + galactose = Lactose (milk sugar)
Glucose + glucose = Maltose (malt sugar)
If the enzyme lactase is not present, the body is unable to break down lactose. Allowing it to reach the large intestines. Normally, sugars do not reach the large intestine. This is what causes a stomach ache!
polysaccharides - long chains of repeating units of monosaccharides, these are energy storing molecules or structural molecules
All the sugars are oriented in the same direction
Branched or "forked"
Every other sugar molecule is "upside-down
Polymers of carbohydrates are all synthesized from monomers by
the joining of disaccharides.
ionic bonding between monomers
Saliva Identification - Amylase
Insulin is a hormone that helps your body use glucose.
**A protein can be denatured, heat causes it to lose its shape, and its functionality..
The linkage between the monomers of proteins are identified as
Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?
A) Amine and sulfhydryl
B) Carbonyl and carboxyl
C) Carboxyl and amine
D) Alcohol and aldehyde
E) Ketone and amine
Saturated - no double bonds
solid at room temperature
Unsaturated - have double bonds
liquid at room temperature
Which macromolecule is the main component of cell membranes?
Which of the following macromolecules below could be structural parts of the cell, enzymes, or involved in cell movement or communication?