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Four Types of Organic Molecules. Made by cells Contains carbon. Importance of Carbon. Although cells are 70-95% water, the rest of composed mainly of carbon compounds. Proteins, carbohydrates, DNA, and other molecules are compounds of carbon bonded to other elements.

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Four types of organic molecules

Four Types ofOrganic Molecules

Made by cells

Contains carbon


Importance of carbon
Importance of Carbon

  • Although cells are 70-95% water, the rest of composed mainly of carbon compounds.

  • Proteins, carbohydrates, DNA, and other molecules are compounds of carbon bonded to other elements.

  • Carbon often bonds to H, O, N, S, and P in organic compounds.


Properties of carbon
Properties of Carbon

  • Has four valence electrons; can form covalent bonds with four other atoms (tetravalence)

  • Carbon bonded to four atoms forms a tetrahedron-shaped molecule.

  • Carbon can form single, double, or triple bonds with other atoms.


  • Carbon chains form the backbone of most organic molecules.

  • Chains can be straight, branched, or arranged in closed rings.

  • Hydrocarbons contain carbon and hydrogen only, and are hydrophobic. H—C and C—C bonds are nonpolar.

  • Hydrocarbons make up fossil fuels, and parts of cellular organic molecules such as fats and phospholipids.


1. Carbohydrates- used as fuel and building material

2. Lipids-energy storage

3. Proteins-structure, movement, enzymes

4. Nucleic acids-store and transmit hereditary information.


All four are macromolecules because of their large size

The largest

Macromolecules

are called polymers

Created by linking

smaller subunits

called monomers.

All four are macromolecules because of their large size.


Dehydration
Dehydration

  • Monomers are linked together to form polymers through dehydration reactions, which remove water

  • Monomers are linked together by covalent bonds

Unlinked

monomer

Short polymer

Dehydration

reaction

Longer polymer


Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis

  • Polymers are broken apart by hydrolysis, the addition of water

  • Breaks covalent bonds between monomers

Hydrolysis


Review q
Review Q:

Hydrolysis is involved in which of the following?

Formation of starch

Hydrogen bond formation between amino acids

Peptide bonds in proteins

The hydrophobic interactions in lipids

The digestion of maltose to glucose


1 carbohydrates
1.Carbohydrates

monosaccharides - one ring sugars

glucose, galactose and fructose

* A 6-carbon sugar

* Found in peas.

* A 5-carbon sugar

* A 6-carbon sugar

* the sugar that sweetens fruit

* The sugar in our blood


Diabetes
Diabetes

  • Disease characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production

  • Monitored with blood glucose device.


disaccharides - two monosaccharides (2 ring sugar)

Glucose + fructose = Sucrose (table sugar)

Glucose + galactose = Lactose (milk sugar)

Glucose + glucose = Maltose (malt sugar)


Lactose intolerant
Lactose intolerant

If the enzyme lactase is not present, the body is unable to break down lactose. Allowing it to reach the large intestines. Normally, sugars do not reach the large intestine. This is what causes a stomach ache!


  • polysaccharides - long chains of repeating units of monosaccharides, these are energy storing molecules or structural molecules

    Energy:

    • starch (plants produce for a storage molecule.)

    • glycogen (storage molecule in muscle and liver cells.)

      Structural:

    • chitin (used by insects and crustaceans to build an

      exoskeleton.)

    • cellulose (plants produce for cell wall construction.)

      • indigestible because we lack enzymes to break it down.


Starch cellulose glycogen
Starch, Cellulose & Glycogen

All the sugars are oriented in the same direction

Branched or "forked"

Every other sugar molecule is "upside-down


Review q1
Review Q:

Polymers of carbohydrates are all synthesized from monomers by

the joining of disaccharides.

hydrolysis.

dehydration synthesis.

ionic bonding between monomers

cohesion.


2 protein made of a long chain of amino acids make up 50 of cellular dry weight
2.ProteinMade ofa long chain of amino acidsMake up 50% of cellular dry weight


Amino acids building blocks
Amino acids (building blocks)

  • Have an amino group and a carboxyl group

  • Also a chemical group symbolized by R

Amino

group

Carboxyl

group


Carboxyl

group

Amino

group

Peptide

bond

Dehydration

reaction

Dipeptide

Amino acid

Amino acid


Proteins function as
Proteins function as… acid to the amino group of the next amino acid

  • Support

    • keratin for hair and nails & collagen for ligaments, tendons, skin


Proteins function as1
Proteins function as… acid to the amino group of the next amino acid

  • Enzymes to speed up reactions

  • Example: Amylase is an enzyme in saliva that breaks starch into glucose monomers.

Saliva

Saliva Identification - Amylase


Proteins function as2
Proteins function as… acid to the amino group of the next amino acid

  • Transport across cell membranes

    • Hemoglobin

  • Defense from infection

    • Antibodies

  • Hormones

    • Insulin

Insulin is a hormone that helps your body use glucose.


Protein structure is key to their ability to function
Protein acid to the amino group of the next amino acidstructure is key to their ability to function.

**A protein can be denatured, heat causes it to lose its shape, and its functionality..


Review q2
Review Q: acid to the amino group of the next amino acid

The linkage between the monomers of proteins are identified as

Peptide bonds

Glycosidic linkages

Ionic bonds

Covalent bonds

Ester linkages


Review q3
Review Q: acid to the amino group of the next amino acid

Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?

A) Amine and sulfhydryl

B) Carbonyl and carboxyl

C) Carboxyl and amine

D) Alcohol and aldehyde

E) Ketone and amine


3 nucleic acids stores information
3. acid to the amino group of the next amino acidNucleic AcidsStores information

Two types:

DNA

(deoxyribonucleic acid)

RNA

(ribonucleic acid)


Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids
Nucleotides acid to the amino group of the next amino acid are the building blocks of Nucleic acids.


4 lipids

Hydrophobic acid to the amino group of the next amino acid – Will not mix with water

Types of Lipids:

Phospholipids - form cell membranes

4. Lipids

The polar heads are towards the water, the nonpolar tails are on the inside of the cell.


  • Steroids acid to the amino group of the next amino acid cell messengers

    • examples: testosterone, estrogen

  • Waxesprotection & waterproofing


    • Triglycerides acid to the amino group of the next amino acid fats and oils

      • fats are made of chains of fatty acids


    Saturated unsaturated
    Saturated & Unsaturated acid to the amino group of the next amino acid

    Saturated - no double bonds

    solid at room temperature

    Unsaturated - have double bonds

    liquid at room temperature


    Review q4
    Review Q: acid to the amino group of the next amino acid

    Which macromolecule is the main component of cell membranes?

    Glucose

    Steroids

    Carbohydrates

    Phospholipids

    DNA


    Review q5
    Review Q: acid to the amino group of the next amino acid

    Which of the following macromolecules below could be structural parts of the cell, enzymes, or involved in cell movement or communication?

    Nucleic acids

    Proteins

    Lipids

    Carbohydrates

    Minerals


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