Four Types of Organic Molecules. Made by cells Contains carbon. Importance of Carbon. Although cells are 70-95% water, the rest of composed mainly of carbon compounds. Proteins, carbohydrates, DNA, and other molecules are compounds of carbon bonded to other elements.
Made by cells
1. Carbohydrates- used as fuel and building material
2. Lipids-energy storage
3. Proteins-structure, movement, enzymes
4. Nucleic acids-store and transmit hereditary information.
are called polymers
Created by linking
called monomers.All four are macromolecules because of their large size.
Hydrolysis is involved in which of the following?
Formation of starch
Hydrogen bond formation between amino acids
Peptide bonds in proteins
The hydrophobic interactions in lipids
The digestion of maltose to glucose
monosaccharides - one ring sugars
glucose, galactose and fructose
* A 6-carbon sugar
* Found in peas.
* A 5-carbon sugar
* A 6-carbon sugar
* the sugar that sweetens fruit
* The sugar in our blood
disaccharides - two monosaccharides (2 ring sugar)
Glucose + fructose = Sucrose (table sugar)
Glucose + galactose = Lactose (milk sugar)
Glucose + glucose = Maltose (malt sugar)
If the enzyme lactase is not present, the body is unable to break down lactose. Allowing it to reach the large intestines. Normally, sugars do not reach the large intestine. This is what causes a stomach ache!
All the sugars are oriented in the same direction
Branched or "forked"
Every other sugar molecule is "upside-down
Polymers of carbohydrates are all synthesized from monomers by
the joining of disaccharides.
ionic bonding between monomers
Saliva Identification - Amylase
Insulin is a hormone that helps your body use glucose.
**A protein can be denatured, heat causes it to lose its shape, and its functionality..
The linkage between the monomers of proteins are identified as
Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?
A) Amine and sulfhydryl
B) Carbonyl and carboxyl
C) Carboxyl and amine
D) Alcohol and aldehyde
E) Ketone and amine
Hydrophobic acid to the amino group of the next amino acid – Will not mix with water
Types of Lipids:
Phospholipids - form cell membranes4. Lipids
The polar heads are towards the water, the nonpolar tails are on the inside of the cell.
Saturated - no double bonds
solid at room temperature
Unsaturated - have double bonds
liquid at room temperature
Which macromolecule is the main component of cell membranes?
Which of the following macromolecules below could be structural parts of the cell, enzymes, or involved in cell movement or communication?