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Four Types of Organic Molecules. Made by cells Contains carbon. Importance of Carbon. Although cells are 70-95% water, the rest of composed mainly of carbon compounds. Proteins, carbohydrates, DNA, and other molecules are compounds of carbon bonded to other elements.

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four types of organic molecules

Four Types ofOrganic Molecules

Made by cells

Contains carbon

importance of carbon
Importance of Carbon
  • Although cells are 70-95% water, the rest of composed mainly of carbon compounds.
  • Proteins, carbohydrates, DNA, and other molecules are compounds of carbon bonded to other elements.
  • Carbon often bonds to H, O, N, S, and P in organic compounds.
properties of carbon
Properties of Carbon
  • Has four valence electrons; can form covalent bonds with four other atoms (tetravalence)
  • Carbon bonded to four atoms forms a tetrahedron-shaped molecule.
  • Carbon can form single, double, or triple bonds with other atoms.
slide4
Carbon chains form the backbone of most organic molecules.
  • Chains can be straight, branched, or arranged in closed rings.
  • Hydrocarbons contain carbon and hydrogen only, and are hydrophobic. H—C and C—C bonds are nonpolar.
  • Hydrocarbons make up fossil fuels, and parts of cellular organic molecules such as fats and phospholipids.
slide5
1. Carbohydrates- used as fuel and building material

2. Lipids-energy storage

3. Proteins-structure, movement, enzymes

4. Nucleic acids-store and transmit hereditary information.

all four are macromolecules because of their large size
The largest

Macromolecules

are called polymers

Created by linking

smaller subunits

called monomers.

All four are macromolecules because of their large size.
dehydration
Dehydration
  • Monomers are linked together to form polymers through dehydration reactions, which remove water
  • Monomers are linked together by covalent bonds

Unlinked

monomer

Short polymer

Dehydration

reaction

Longer polymer

hydrolysis
Hydrolysis
  • Polymers are broken apart by hydrolysis, the addition of water
  • Breaks covalent bonds between monomers

Hydrolysis

review q
Review Q:

Hydrolysis is involved in which of the following?

Formation of starch

Hydrogen bond formation between amino acids

Peptide bonds in proteins

The hydrophobic interactions in lipids

The digestion of maltose to glucose

1 carbohydrates
1.Carbohydrates

monosaccharides - one ring sugars

glucose, galactose and fructose

* A 6-carbon sugar

* Found in peas.

* A 5-carbon sugar

* A 6-carbon sugar

* the sugar that sweetens fruit

* The sugar in our blood

diabetes
Diabetes
  • Disease characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production
  • Monitored with blood glucose device.
slide12

disaccharides - two monosaccharides (2 ring sugar)

Glucose + fructose = Sucrose (table sugar)

Glucose + galactose = Lactose (milk sugar)

Glucose + glucose = Maltose (malt sugar)

lactose intolerant
Lactose intolerant

If the enzyme lactase is not present, the body is unable to break down lactose. Allowing it to reach the large intestines. Normally, sugars do not reach the large intestine. This is what causes a stomach ache!

slide14

polysaccharides - long chains of repeating units of monosaccharides, these are energy storing molecules or structural molecules

Energy:

    • starch (plants produce for a storage molecule.)
    • glycogen (storage molecule in muscle and liver cells.)

Structural:

    • chitin (used by insects and crustaceans to build an

exoskeleton.)

    • cellulose (plants produce for cell wall construction.)
      • indigestible because we lack enzymes to break it down.
starch cellulose glycogen
Starch, Cellulose & Glycogen

All the sugars are oriented in the same direction

Branched or "forked"

Every other sugar molecule is "upside-down

review q1
Review Q:

Polymers of carbohydrates are all synthesized from monomers by

the joining of disaccharides.

hydrolysis.

dehydration synthesis.

ionic bonding between monomers

cohesion.

amino acids building blocks
Amino acids (building blocks)
  • Have an amino group and a carboxyl group
  • Also a chemical group symbolized by R

Amino

group

Carboxyl

group

slide19
Dehydration reaction links the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of the next amino acid
    • The covalent linkage resulting is called a peptide bond

Carboxyl

group

Amino

group

Peptide

bond

Dehydration

reaction

Dipeptide

Amino acid

Amino acid

proteins function as
Proteins function as…
  • Support
    • keratin for hair and nails & collagen for ligaments, tendons, skin
proteins function as1
Proteins function as…
  • Enzymes to speed up reactions
  • Example: Amylase is an enzyme in saliva that breaks starch into glucose monomers.

Saliva

Saliva Identification - Amylase

proteins function as2
Proteins function as…
  • Transport across cell membranes
    • Hemoglobin
  • Defense from infection
    • Antibodies
  • Hormones
    • Insulin

Insulin is a hormone that helps your body use glucose.

protein structure is key to their ability to function
Proteinstructure is key to their ability to function.

**A protein can be denatured, heat causes it to lose its shape, and its functionality..

review q2
Review Q:

The linkage between the monomers of proteins are identified as

Peptide bonds

Glycosidic linkages

Ionic bonds

Covalent bonds

Ester linkages

review q3
Review Q:

Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?

A) Amine and sulfhydryl

B) Carbonyl and carboxyl

C) Carboxyl and amine

D) Alcohol and aldehyde

E) Ketone and amine

3 nucleic acids stores information
3.Nucleic AcidsStores information

Two types:

DNA

(deoxyribonucleic acid)

RNA

(ribonucleic acid)

4 lipids
Hydrophobic – Will not mix with water

Types of Lipids:

Phospholipids - form cell membranes

4. Lipids

The polar heads are towards the water, the nonpolar tails are on the inside of the cell.

slide30
Steroids cell messengers
      • examples: testosterone, estrogen
  • Waxesprotection & waterproofing
slide31
Triglycerides fats and oils
    • fats are made of chains of fatty acids
saturated unsaturated
Saturated & Unsaturated

Saturated - no double bonds

solid at room temperature

Unsaturated - have double bonds

liquid at room temperature

review q4
Review Q:

Which macromolecule is the main component of cell membranes?

Glucose

Steroids

Carbohydrates

Phospholipids

DNA

review q5
Review Q:

Which of the following macromolecules below could be structural parts of the cell, enzymes, or involved in cell movement or communication?

Nucleic acids

Proteins

Lipids

Carbohydrates

Minerals

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