Research methods unit 2 lecture vocabulary
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Research Methods unit 2 lecture vocabulary. Measure – operational version of your concept or variable Measurement – limiting the data of any phenomenon so that those data may be interpreted and compared to an acceptable standard of quality or quantity.

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Research Methods unit 2 lecture vocabulary

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Research Methods unit 2 lecture vocabulary

  • Measure – operational version of your concept or variable

  • Measurement – limiting the data of any phenomenon so that those data may be interpreted and compared to an acceptable standard of quality or quantity.

  • Anything that exists can be measured by a researcher.

  • Measurement is ultimately about comparison.

  • The instrument that you use, or more likely you design, to measure these insubstantial ‘things’ will be effective only if it is valid & reliable.

  • Validity: the extent to which the instrument measures what it is supposed to measure

  • Reliability: the consistency with which a measuring instrument

    yields certain results when the characteristic

    being measured hasn’t changed.

Research Methods unit 2 lecturevocabulary

Method of Research:

Observations because researchers are ‘testing; their hypothesis (quantitative) or formulating a theory (qualitative)to answer the research question. We call our research observations 'empirical tests' (p, 18)

Indirect methods– methods of data collection that don’t involve contacts between the researcher and subjects - unobtrusive

Indirect sources or secondary sources – libraries; minutes from corporate board meetings; headstones in a cemetery,

Direct methods– method of data collection in which data are obtained personally from subjects or respondents.

Direct sources or primary sources -Interviews, questionnaires observation of behavior

Research Methods unit 2 lecture

Quantitative Research

Qualitative Research

Purpose or Use: discovery, gain new perspectives, accepts dynamics of the social world, Identify variables that can later be measured quantitatively

Variables: none

Hypothesis: rarely

Sample size: often small

Participants: targeted --- not necessarily meant to generalize results

Methods: observation, surveys, informal interviews

Measurements: discovery, coding themes

Reporting results: depends on purpose -generate theory, conceptualization, instrument development (see table 1 handout)

Implications for future research: narrow focus, expand to other groups, expand to other phenomena, change data collection method

Purpose or Use: correlations, relationships, effects, differences, predictability

Variables: independent and dependent (cause & effect)

Hypothesis: yes

Sample size: often large

Participants: random/convenient – intended to allow results to be generalized

Methods: surveys, observations, other

Measurements: statistical

Reporting results: Statistics, generalizability of results, validity, reliability

Implications for future research: change sample population, narrow research question, study alternative constructs, change data collection method, replicate study to test results

Research Methods unit 2 lecture

  • Qualitative research contributes to the

    scientific inquiry process

    • Psychologists, Sociologist, & Business including Human Resources & Marketing

    • Understanding customer reaction to products and services

    • Evaluating organizational change

  • Methods include surveys, focus groups & interviews with stakeholders such as customer, employees and management

    • Observation and analysis of human opinions and behavior (ex: secret shoppers)

  • Analyze artifacts such as marketing literature, training documents, graduation programs, schedules

Research Methods unit 2 lecture vocabulary

  • Concepts orconstructs - variables that are not directly measurable such as:

    • financial situation,

    • classroom atmosphere,

    • occupational status,

    • study habits,

    • desire for college degree,

    • clear career/educational goals,

    • using Career Services resources,

    • attitude toward attendance

Research Methods unit 2 lectureThinking through your options

  • Who are you going to study?

  • Research question: Why is the ratio of men to women at ITT Rancho Cordova approximately 75% to 25%?

  • How are you going to do your research?

  • You might decide to do a survey of all male and female students using a PRE-CODED questionnaire with reasons why they decided to enroll and the factors affecting their decisions to stay.

  • OR you might decide to do a case study of three women students as compared to three men students -- doing in-depth interviews about their reasons for enrolling and staying on the campus.

  • Both of these approaches would answer the question in a different way. . That is, the out come of a survey might be very different from that of a case study.

Research Methods unit 2 lectureThinking through your options

  • When deciding on the approach you want to take,

    you need to take into consideration these factors:

  • What resources do you have at your disposal?

  • Which approach do you feel most comfortable with?

  • What is the overall purpose of your research and how do you intend the findings to be used?

  • Does the method you choose affect bias within your research?

  • Have you ‘controlled’ the variables: made sure there isn’t some other factor (confounding variable) effecting the outcome, this takes contemplation and deliberate planning

  • Are there ethical implications,

    such as protecting the identify of participants?

Research Methods unit 2 lectureThinking through your options

  • You must decide how you will conduct the research by describing the method that will be used to measure your concepts or constructs and by deciding which method(s) you use to collect the data

  • Then the researcher conducts the research by

    • 1) reviewing data from indirect i.e. (literature review) and

    • 2) by doing his / her observations and / or surveying i.e.

    • Note: Longitudinal study: takes place over an extended period of time.

  • A quantitative research paper will describe the results, discuss the results, interpreting the data and confirm or refute the hypothesis

  • The qualitative research paper will draw conclusions by conceptualizing and theory building.

  • The research paper may make recommendations for future research.

Research Methods unit 2 lecture

  • Finding Peer Reviewed Articles

  • Virtual Library search

  • Choose school of study (General Education)

  • Choose Databases »

    • Search: EBSCOhost Master FILE Premier

    • Search Options

      √ Find all my search terms

      √ Also search within full text of the articles

  • -- Limit Your Results

    √ Full Text

    √ Peer Reviewed

    √ Published Date from January 1985 to January 2011

  • Examples of searches:

    • Instructor access, college

    • College students, sleep habits

    • College students, tobacco use

    • College students, relationships

    • Face Book, college

    • “communication technology” and “college students”

  • Hint for finding more articles --- use the References listed in an article that has provided good information

Research Methods unit 2 lecture


  • Is the author's point of view unclear?

  • Is the author's point of view flawed?

  • Does the author have a bias — political, ideological, or cultural?

  • Does the author hope to persuade you in some way?

    If the answer to any of these questions is yes, then the source will not be useful.

    In regard to items # 3 & 4 both of these imply the author(s) had a preconceive answer to the question.

    His or her bias will interfere

    with your research.

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