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Pacific school of Engineering , surat. A Presentation on. Cenrifugal pump. Guided by. MR Vatsal Patel. Prepared by:. 1} Jogani Ghanshyam (131120131020) 2 } Italiya Pratik (1311201319) 3 } Kabariya Shubham ( 1311201321). CENTRIFUGAL PUMP.

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Pacific school of

Engineering , surat

A

Presentation on

Cenrifugal pump


Guided by

MR Vatsal Patel

Prepared by:

1} JoganiGhanshyam (131120131020)

2} ItaliyaPratik (1311201319)

3} KabariyaShubham(1311201321)


CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

  • WHAT IS CENTRIFUGAL PUMP?

  • WORKING MECHANISM OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

  • ADVANTEGAES AND DISADVANTAGES OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS


-: Working of Centrifugal Pump :-

  • Centrifugal pump works on the principle that when a certain mass of liquid is made to rotate along the impeller from the central axis of rotation, it impresses a centrifugal head. It causes the water to move radially outwards at higher velocity and causes the water to rise to a higher level. The motion of water is restricted by casing of pump, it result into pressure build up. In addition , the change in angular momentum of liquid during its fiowreults into increase in pressure head.

  • The steps involved in operation of centrifugal pump are as follows :

  • The delivery valve is closed.

  • The priming of the pump is carried out. Priming involves the filling the liquid in suction pipe and casing upto the level of delivery valve so that no air pockets are left in the system.

  • if any air or gas pockets are left in this portion of pump, it may result into no delivery of liquid by the pump.


  • The pump shaft and impeller is now rotated with the help of an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

  • The rotation of impeller inside a casing full of liquid produces a forced vortex which is responsible in imparting the centrifugal head to the liquid. It creates a vaccum at the eye of impeller and causes liquid to rise into suction pipe from the sump.

  • The speed of impeller should be sufficient to produce the centrifugal head such that it can initiate discharge from delivery pipe.

  • Now the delivery valve is opened and the liquid is lifted and discharge through the delivery pipe due to its high pressure.

  • Thus the liquid is continously sucked from the sump to impeller eye and it is delivered from the casing of pump through the delivery pipe.

  • 6. Before stopping the pump, it is necessary to close the delivery pipe otherwise the back flow of liquid may take place from the high head reservoir.


:Priming of a Centrifugal Pump : an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

:- In case the priming of pump is not done and the pump is not done and the pump is not under the operation, the water present in the pump and suction pipe will flow back to the sump. The space occupied by water will be filled by air.

:-The operation of filling the casing , impeller and suction pipe and the portion of delivery pump upto delivery valve is called priming.


:- an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.If the pump is now started, the air pockets inside the impeller may give rise to vortices and cause the discontinuity of flow. Under these condition, the flow of fluid does not commence and the pump runs dry. It causes the rubbing and seizing of the wearing rings, increases noise level and vibrations and finally may cause the serious damage to pump.

:- The priming in resiprocating pumps is not required since the pumping is done by positively moving the fluid out of the cylinder by the piston. Hence, the air will be displaced from the casing when the pump starts and it will get a suction pressure which will draw the fluid from the sump.


  • Priming for small pumps is done by hand an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

  • :- A foot valve is essential at the bottom of suction pipe

  • :- A funnel or priming cup is provided to fill the water by hand. An air vent is provided in the casing of pump. When the water is filled, the air escapes through the air vent. It is closed once the priming is completed


What is centrifugal pump
WHAT IS CENTRIFUGAL PUMP an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.?

  • Convert the mechanical energy into hydraulic energy by centrifugal force on the liquid

  • Constitute the most common type of pumping machinery

  • Used to move liquids through a piping system

  • Has two main components:

    1. Stationary componets, casing, casing cover and bearings

    2. Rotating components, impeller and shaft

  • Classified into three categories ; Radial Flow, Mixed Flow, Axial Flow


Working mechanism of a centrifugal pump
WORKING MECHANISM OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

  • Simplest piece of equipment in any process plant

  • Energy changes occur by virtue of impeller and volute

  • Liquid is fed into the pump at the center of a rotating impeller and thrown outward by centrifugal force

  • The conversion of kinetic energy into pressure energy supplies the pressure difference between the suction side and delivery side of the pump

Liquid flow path inside a centrifugal pump


Advantages of centrigugal pumps
ADVANTAGES OF CENTRIGUGAL an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.PUMPS

Advantages

  • Simple in construction and cheap

  • Handle liquid with large amounts of solids

  • No metal to metal fits

  • No valves involved in pump operation

  • Maintenance costs are lower


Disadvantages of centrifugal pumps
DISADVANTAGES OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

Disadvantages

  • Cannot handle highly viscous fluids efficiently

  • Cannot be operated at high heads

  • Maximum efficiency holds over a narrow range of conditions


Power and efficiency calculations
POWER AND EFFICIENCY CALCULATIONS an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

  • The power supplied to the pump:

…………(1)

Where m=mass flow rate, kg/s

H= total discharge head, N.m/kg

=efficiency


…………(2)

  • From equations (1) and (2)efficiency:


Specific speed that is used to classify pumps
Specific speed that is used to classify pumps an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

nqis the specific speed for a unit machine that is geometric similar to a machine with the head Hq = 1 m and flow rate Q = 1 m3/s


What is a centrifugal pump
What is a centrifugal pump? an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

Three basic components:

  • Volute, casing, body

    • or Diffuser

  • Impeller

    • or impellers

  • Driver (motor)


Pump impeller
Pump Impeller an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

Direction of

rotation

Vanes

Centrifugal Pumps


Single suction impeller an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

Centrifugal Pumps


Impeller types
Impeller Types an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

  • Open

  • Semi-open

  • Closed

    • Single suction

    • Double suction

  • Non-clogging

  • Axial flow

  • Mixed flow

Centrifugal Pumps


Generally
Generally: an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

  • Maximum efficiency lies in the range:

    2000<NS<3000

  • High head, low capacity pumps:

    500<NS<1000

  • Low head, large capacity pumps:

    NS>15000


Full diameter impeller

V an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.s

Vr

Vt

Vr = Radial Velocity

Vt = Tangential Velocity

Vs = Vector Sum Velocity

Rotation

Impeller

Blades

Full Diameter Impeller

Centrifugal Pumps


Impeller and volute
Impeller and volute an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

Arrows represent the

direction of water flow

Discharge

Nozzle

Cutwater

Suction Eye

Centrifugal Pumps


End suction pump
End Suction Pump an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

  • 26 sizes

  • To 4400 gpm

  • To 520 ft TDH

  • To 150 HP To 8”x10”

  • General Purpose Motor

Series 1510

Centrifugal Pumps


Double suction pump
Double Suction Pump an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

  • 37 sizes

  • To 12500 gpm

  • To 840 ft TDH

  • To 1000 HP

  • To 14”x18”

  • General Purpose Motor

Bell & Gossett

Series HSC

Centrifugal Pumps


Typical Split Case Pump- Section View an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

Centrifugal Pumps


Double suction pump1
Double Suction Pump an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

Series VSC

  • 17 sizes

  • To 8000 gpm

  • To 400 ft TDH

  • To 600 HP

  • To 12”x14”

  • General Purpose Motor

Series VSCS

Centrifugal Pumps


Pump construction
Pump Construction an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

  • Standard construction, any impeller

    • Mechanical seal

    • Internally flushed, seal cavity

    • Variety of seal materials

  • Stuffing box construction, any impeller

    • External flush lines

    • Compression packing rings

    • Single flushed mechanical seal

Centrifugal Pumps


B g pump construction
B&G Pump Construction an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

  • Standard construction, any impeller

    • Mechanical seal

    • Internally flushed, seal cavity

    • Variety of seal materials

Centrifugal Pumps


Limits on seal performance
Limits On Seal Performance an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

  • Temperature of the flushing water.

    • 225ºF to 250ºF

  • System pH.

    • 7 to 9 for ceramic seals

    • up to 11 for tungsten carbide seals

  • Concentration of dissolved solids.

    • TDS less than 1000 ppm

  • Concentration of suspended solids.

    • Less than 20 ppm

    • Silica, less than 10 ppm

Centrifugal Pumps


Pump construction1
Pump Construction an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

  • Stuffing box construction, any impeller

    • External flush lines

      • Internal or External Fluid

    • Compression packing rings

    • Single flushed mechanical seal

Centrifugal Pumps


What s suitable
What’s “suitable”…? an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

  • Impeller

    • Single suction or double suction.

  • Volutes

    • Base mounted or in-line.

  • Internally flushed or stuffing box.

  • Single stage or multi stage.

  • Packing, seal or wet rotor.

Centrifugal Pumps


Suction piping detail
Suction Piping Detail an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

5 dia.

RIGHT

WRONG

1. Pipe weight hangs on pump flange.

2. Short suction pipe results in uneven impeller loading.

1. Pipe supported

2. Length of suction piping allows even impeller loading

Centrifugal Pumps


Why 5 diameters
Why 5 diameters? an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

Single Suction

Impeller

Centrifugal Pumps


Pump selection
PUMP SELECTION an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.

  • The amount of fluid

  • The properties of the fluid

  • Type of power supply

  • Cost and mechanical efficiency of the pump


Thanks for listening
Thanks for listening an external source of power like a motor or any other prime mover.


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