A Presentation on. Dr.S. Kanmani Phone:044 – 22359027 Professor in Civil Engineering [email protected] Centre for Environmental Studies Anna University Chennai, Chennai – 600 025. Reverse Osmosis. TDS. TDS Ranges. TDS Concentrations. History of Membrane Treatment.
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They are made of different materials
- Cellulose acetate/triacetate
- Cellulose acetate blends
- Poly amides
- Ceramics etc
They are in different forms
- Hollow fibre
- Thin film composite spiral wound
They have different characteristics -capabilities to remove impurities and operating pressures
Recent Advancement:Extra large RO Membranes: 18 in dia x 60 in long
Cannot concentrate to 100%
Cannot separate to 100%
Not always the most cost effective method
1 bar = 1 atm = 100 kPa = 100 kN/m2 = 1 kg/m.s2 = 10 m H2O = 760 mm Hg=14.5 psi
100 mg/L TDS » 1 psi (0.07 atm) osmotic pressure
1,000 mg/L TDS » 10 psi (0.7 atm) osmotic pressure
35,000 mg/L TDS » 350 psi (25 atm)osmotic pressure
Module : Pressure vessel containing 1 -10 RO elements
Pretreatment; TDS < 10,000
Turbidity < 1 NTU
Particle size < 25 micron
pH = 4.5 prevents scale formation
General Membrane Operation membrane surface area).
& Maintenance Procedures
Membrane Post Treatment System membrane surface area).
Scale Prevention membrane surface area).
Post Treatment membrane surface area).
Membrane Classifications membrane surface area).
Membranes membrane surface area).
Membrane Materials membrane surface area).
Packing Modules membrane surface area).
RO membrane surface area).