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Wedges of Separation 1850-1860


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Wedges of Separation 1850-1860. Senator Stephen Douglas-Illinois. “There are eleven hundred coming from Platte County to vote and it that ain’t enough we can send five thousand-enough to kill every God-damned abolitionist in the Territory”-Senator David Atchinson Missouri. John Brown.

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Wedges of Separation 1850-1860

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Wedges of Separation1850-1860


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SenatorStephenDouglas-Illinois


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“There are eleven hundred coming from Platte County to vote and it that ain’t enough we can send five thousand-enough to kill every God-damned abolitionist in the Territory”-Senator David AtchinsonMissouri


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John Brown


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Senator Charles Sumner


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DredScott


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John Brown


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1861-62


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President James Buchanan


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Jefferson Davis


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Bull Run, VA


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“Your little army, derided for its want of arms, derided for its lack of all the essential material of war, has met the grand army of the enemy, routed it at every point, and it now flies, inglorious in retreat before our victorious columns. We have taught them a lesson in their invasion of the sacred soil of Virginia.”

Jefferson Davis (CSA) after 1st Bull Run


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General George McClellan


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General Robert E. LeeCSA


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Antietam-September 17, 1862


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Moving towards Emancipation


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Crittenden Resolution

  • Passed by Congress July of 1861

  • War is being fought to preserve the Union, not to end slavery.

  • Lincoln had stated as much in his First Inauguration Speech


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First Confiscation Act-1862

  • Any property being used to aid the Rebellion can be seized.

  • Example: slaves growing crops helps the Rebellion

  • Loophole: quit fighting and the South can keep its slaves.


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Second Confiscation Act-1862

  • All rebel property, regardless of its use, can be seized.

  • Loophole: quit fighting and keep the slaves.


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Steps Toward Emancipation

  • March 1862-slaves who escape to Union lines will not be returned to owners.

  • April 1862-compensated emancipation $$$$ goes into effect for Washington DC.

  • June 1862-Territories are emancipated without compensation


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Political consideration against Emancipation

  • Did not want to offend the border states

    a. Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware, Maryland

    2. Offend the racist element in the North

    a. Did not want freed slaves to take their jobs


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“I would do it if I were not afraid that half the officers would fling down their arms and three more States would rise. “ Lincoln-summer 1861


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Horace Greeley

  • Owner and editor of New York Tribune

  • Editorial-”Prayer of 20 Million” urging immediate emancipation.


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Lincoln’s Response

  • “My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and it is not either to save or destroy slavery.”

  • Free none, free all, or free some and leave others enslaved.

  • This response reflected Lincoln’s official view, not as he stated his personal view of slavery.


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  • What Lincoln needs, in 1862, is a victory in the Eastern Theater of the war to help the North see the connection between ending the war and ending slavery.

  • What victory leads to emancipation?

  • Antietam


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Emancipation Proclamation

  • Issued September 22, 1862-five days after Antietam

  • All persons engaged in Rebellion as of January 1, 1863 will have their slaves freed. This justified emancipation for military reasons.

  • Loophole: if the South quits, they can keep their slaves.


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King Cotton Diplomacy

  • An attempt to force Britain or France to recognize the Confederacy as a nation


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Process

  • Create an artificial cotton shortage


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Process

  • Create an artificial cotton shortage

  • Leads to higher unemployment in Britain & France


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Process

  • Create an artificial cotton shortage

  • Leads to higher unemployment in Britain & France

  • Unemployment leads to an increase in social problems such crime, prostitution, etc.

  • These problems will force Britain and France to recognize the Confederacy and thus resume cotton shipments


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Reasons for Failure

  • Egyptian cotton was abundant

  • European crop failures forced Europe to import Yankee wheat

  • British and French working classes willing to suffer if it meant the end of slavery in the United States.


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General George Meade


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General Robert E. LeeCSA


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Big Round Top @ Gettysburg


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Little Round Top @ Gettysburg


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GeneralUlyssesS.Grant


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“We must destroy this army of Grant’s before he gets to the James River. If he gets there, it will become a siege, and then it will be a mere question of time.” Lee, June 1864 to Jubal Early


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General William Tecumseh Sherman


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John Bell Hood


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“Atlanta is ours and fairly won” Sherman


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“I will make Georgia howl.” Sherman


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“We cannot change the hearts of these people of the South, but we can make war so terrible and make them so sick of war that generations will pass away before they again appeal to it.” Sherman


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Sherman’s March to the Sea


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Decides to live off the land

1. Sherman can cut his supply line and move his army faster.

2. Taking supplies from civilians inflicts terror on the civilian population. Union Army burns what they cannot consume.


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Effect of Sherman’s Terror

1. Proves to Confederate citizens that their government is incapable of protecting them.

2. Increases the desertion rate of the Confederate Army as soldiers go home to protect their families.


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1865-The End

“The deep waters are closing over us.” Mary Chestnut


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When I learned that Sherman’s army was marching through the Salkiehatchie Swamps, making its own roads at the rate of a dozen miles per day and bringing its artillery and wagons with it, I made up my mind that there had been no such army in existence since the days of Julius Caesar.” Joseph Johnston CSA


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“Thank God I have lived to see this. It seems to me that I have been dreaming a horrid nightmare for four years, and now the nightmare is over.” Lincoln early April 1865


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“The result of last week must convince you of the hopelessness of further resistance. I regard it as my duty to shift from myself the responsibility of any further effusion of blood, by asking of you the surrender of that portion of the Confederate States Army known as the Army of Northern Virginia.” Grant April 7, 1865


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“There is nothing left for me to do but to go and see General Grant and I would rather die a thousand deaths.” Lee, April 9, 1865


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“Boys, I have done the best I could for you. Go home now, and if you make as good citizens as you have soldiers, you will do well, and I shall always be proud of you. Goodbye, and God bless.” Lee April 9 1865


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John Wilkes Booth


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John Wilkes Booth


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“Our country owed all our troubles to Lincoln. God made me the instrument of his punishment.” John Wilkes Booth