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The crisis of the union 1850 1860

the Crisisof the Union1850-1860


Ushc 3 1

ushc 3.1

Evaluate the relative importance of political events and issues that divided the nation and led to civil war, including the compromises reached to maintain the balance of free and slave states, the abolitionist movement, the Dred Scott case, conflicting views on states’ rights and federal authority, the emergence of the Republican Party, and the formation of the Confederate States of America.


The compromise of 1850
The Compromise of 1850

Admit Californiaas aFreeState

For the North:

For the South:

The New Mexico Territory:

Slavery in Washington, DC:

STRONGERFugitive Slave Law

PopularSovereigntyin Mexican Cession

Texassells land / Federal Gov. assumes debt

AbolishSlaveTradein Washington, D.C.


Crisis averted
Crisis Averted…

…for now.

1850

1860


The Compromise of 1850 was supposed to be the final compromise between the sections…

and it was – just for different reasons than Clay had intended.


Personal liberty laws
Personal Liberty Laws compromise between the sections…

Passed by Wisconsin and other Northern states

  • Guaranteed jury trials for accused slaves

De facto Nullification


Uncle tom s cabin
Uncle Tom’s Cabin compromise between the sections…

Harriet Beecher Stowe’s bestselling anti-slavery novel (1852)

Stowe

Original Illustrations: http://utc.iath.virginia.edu/uncletom/illustra/53illf.html


Some books make us re think
Some books make us compromise between the sections… Re-Think


1852 presidential election
1852 Presidential Election compromise between the sections…

1860

1852

1856


Franklin pierce d nh fourteenth president of the u s 1853 1857
Franklin Pierce compromise between the sections… (D-NH)Fourteenth President of the U.S.1853-1857

“Handsome Frank”

Mexican War Veteran

Kansas-Nebraska Act

“Doughface” (Pro-Southern)

NOT RENOMINATED

“There's nothing left to do but get drunk."

http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/fp14.html


The kansas nebraska act
The Kansas-Nebraska Act compromise between the sections…

POPULAR

SOVEREIGNTY

In Kansas and Nebraska Territories on the issue of slavery

MISSOURI COMPROMISE

ANIMATED MAP:

http://teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/sectionalism/lesson3/


Bleeding kansas

1855-1859 compromise between the sections… 56 Dead

“Bleeding Kansas”

“Race to Kansas”

  • Proslavery vs. Antislavery

  • “Border Ruffians” (from MO)

  • N.E. Immigrant Aid Society

    • Beecher’s Bibles

ANIMATED MAP:

http://teachingamericanhistory.org/neh/interactives/sectionalism/lesson3/


Beecher s bibles
“Beecher’s Bibles” compromise between the sections…

New England Emigrant Aid Society

"He (Henry W. Beecher) believed that the Sharps Rifle was a truly moral agency, and that there was more moral power in one of those instruments, so far as the slaveholders of Kansas were concerned, than in a hundred Bibles. You might just as well. . . read the Bible to Buffaloes as to [pro-slavery settlers]; but they have a supreme respect for the logic that is embodied in Sharp's rifle.”

New York Tribune, 2/8/1856

Rev. Henry Ward Beecher

(H.B. Stowe’s relative)

Bibles


Bleeding kansas 1855 1859 56 dead
“Bleeding Kansas” compromise between the sections… 1855-185956 Dead

Lawrence, KS, after the “Sack of Lawrence” by proslavery settlers


John brown
John Brown compromise between the sections…

  • Abolitionist

  • Pottawatomie Creek Massacre

Bibles


John steuart curry tragic prelude 1937 1941
John Steuart Curry, “ compromise between the sections… Tragic Prelude,” 1937-1941


Conflicting constitutions
Conflicting Constitutions compromise between the sections…

Topeka

Antislavery

Lecompton

Proslavery


Republican party
Republican Party compromise between the sections…

FAIL

Whig Party

(1832-1854)

Republican Party

(1854-Present)

Free Soil

NOT abolitionist

(although abolitionists supported the Republican Party)

New England and “Northwest” power base

  • No longer viable after 1852 election

  • SPLIT: Northern Whigs and Southern Whigs

Northern Whigs +

Northern Free Soil Democrats


The crime against kansas

Document 6.5 compromise between the sections…

“The Crime Against Kansas”

CHIVALRY

Don Quixote

Charles Sumner

US Senator (Mass.)

DON QUIXOTE


Chivalry
Chivalry compromise between the sections…


Brooks sumner incident

( compromise between the sections… 1856)

Brooks/Sumner Incident

vs.

Rep. Preston Brooks (SC)

Sen. Charles Sumner (MA)


SLAP! compromise between the sections…

READ Sumner’s Speech

READ Brooks’ Defense


Nativism
Nativism compromise between the sections…


Nativism1
Nativism compromise between the sections…

Nativism = Anti-Immigration


Philadelphia nativist riots

(1844) compromise between the sections…

Philadelphia Nativist Riots

Anti-Catholic violence

St. Augustine’s Church on Fire


The american party know nothings
The American Party compromise between the sections… “Know Nothings”

NATIVISM

CATHOLICS

IMMIGRANTS

NOTE: Antebellum immigrants were mostly from Germany and Ireland.

“I know nothing…”


Citizen know nothing
“Citizen Know Nothing” compromise between the sections…

A Mascot for the Movement

Ted Nugent: A Real American

Click for Article


1856 presidential election
1856 Presidential Election compromise between the sections…

1860

1852

1856


Ah! Fremont, your sectional Gun has exploded just as I predicted, but my American rifle will bring down that Old Buck.

Oh! Brother Beecher! Our Kansas Gun has bursted and upset our gunner. I’m afraid we put in too big a load.

Confound the Gun! if I can only get out of this muss I’ll stick to preaching and let fire-arms alone.

Abolition Bog


James buchanan d pa fifteenth president of the u s 1857 1861
James Buchanan predicted, but my American rifle will bring down that Old Buck.(D-PA)Fifteenth President of the U.S.1857-1861

Pierce’s Minister to Great Britain – abroad during Kan/Neb Act controversy

Sectional Turmoil Escalated

Indecisive concerning secession

Only bachelor to occupy the White House

http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/jb15.html


Dred scott v sandford

(1857) predicted, but my American rifle will bring down that Old Buck.

Dred Scott v. Sandford

FACTS OF THE CASE:

Dred Scott, a slave, lived with his master in free territory for two years.

Scott claimed this made him a free man.


Dred scott v sandford1

(1857) predicted, but my American rifle will bring down that Old Buck.

Dred Scott v. Sandford

THE DECISION:

  • People of African descent (incl. Scott) could not be U.S. citizens.

  • Congress can’t forbid slavery in federal territories (violation of property rights)

    • Ergo, theMissouri Compromise is Unconstitutional

Judicial Activism


Judicial activism

When Judges predicted, but my American rifle will bring down that Old Buck.Write the Law

Judicial Activism


Slave power conspiracy
“Slave Power” Conspiracy? predicted, but my American rifle will bring down that Old Buck.


Lincoln douglas debates

(1857) predicted, but my American rifle will bring down that Old Buck.

Lincoln-Douglas Debates

  • Illinois Senate Race

    • Stephen Douglas

      • (Democratic Incumbent)

    • Abraham Lincoln

      • (Republican Challenger)

  • FOCUS: Free Soil

  • Significance:

    • Douglas wins, but loses popularity in the South.

    • Lincoln becomes a national figure.

  • Lincoln-Douglas Debate Memorial


House divided speech abraham lincoln
“House Divided” Speech predicted, but my American rifle will bring down that Old Buck. Abraham Lincoln

1858


John brown s raid

( predicted, but my American rifle will bring down that Old Buck.1859)

John Brown’s Raid

OBJECTIVE:

  • Seize a federal arsenal

    • Harpers Ferry, VA

      TREASON

  • Tried, Convicted, Executed

  • Different reactions in North and South


Paranoia
Paranoia predicted, but my American rifle will bring down that Old Buck.

NORTH: “Slave Power” Conspiracy

The South wants to spread slavery throughout the nation

Mason-Dixon Line

SOUTH: North plans to destroy Southern slavery by igniting slave revolts.


1860 presidential election
1860 Presidential Election predicted, but my American rifle will bring down that Old Buck.

1860

1852

1856


Abraham lincoln r il sixteenth president of the u s 1861 1865
Abraham Lincoln predicted, but my American rifle will bring down that Old Buck.(R-IL)Sixteenth President of the U.S.1861-1865

Democratic Party split

Election promptedsecession of states in the Deep South

http://www.whitehouse.gov/history/presidents/al16.html


Secession
Secession predicted, but my American rifle will bring down that Old Buck.


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