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Bruce Mayer, PE Licensed Electrical & Mechanical Engineer [email protected]

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Presentation Transcript

Learning Goals

- Construct Formatted Tables in Excel
- Use the Cell Formatting Commands
- Construct Charts and Graphs
- Comparison Charts → Bar, Col, Radar
- Analysis Charts → Scatter, Surface
- Curve Fits → Linear Regression
- Use tables and graphs as problem solving tools

Using Tables & Charts

- Engineers record and present data in two primary formats: Tables and Graphs

Tables in Reports

- When using Tables in Reports and Presentations
- Tables should always have:
- a Title
- Column headings with brief descriptive names, symbols and appropriate units.
- Numerical data in the table should be written to the proper number of significant digits.
- The decimal points in a column should be aligned.
- Tables should always be referenced and discussed/explained in the body of the text of the document containing the table

Charts and Graphs

- Carefully The Select the TYPE of Chart
- Different Charts Convey Different Info
- Make Clear and Easy to Read
- Large Fonts
- Good Contrast
- Light-on-Dark or Dark-on-Light
- Include Legend Unless Info in Title
- Label All Axes, Including Units

Charts & Graphs cont

- Where Appropriate Annotate or Mark points/regions of Interest with Arrows, Ovals, or Text
- There are 11 different chart types in Microsoft Excel (and several variations of each type)
- This Covers 99.9% of the Chart Types That Most Engineers will need
- Consider Next the Criteria for application

MS Excel Charts

- Area Chart
- An area chart emphasizes the magnitude of change over time. By displaying the sum of the plotted values, an area chart also shows the relationship of parts to a whole.

MS Excel Charts

- Bar Chart
- A bar chart illustrates comparisons among individual items. Categories are organized vertically, values horizontally, to focus on comparing values and to place LESS emphasis on time. Stacked bar charts showthe relationship of individual items to the whole.

MS Excel Charts

- Column Chart
- A column chart shows data changes over a period of time or illustrates comparisons among items. Categories are organized horizontally, values vertically, to emphasize variationover time. Stacked column charts show the relationship of individual items to the whole.

MS Excel Charts

- Line Chart
- A line chart shows trends in data at equal intervals. Although line charts are similar to area charts, line charts emphasize time flow and the rate of change, rather than the amount of change or the magnitude of values.

MS Excel Charts

- Pie Chart
- A pie chart shows the proportional size of items that make up a data series to the sum of the items.
- It always shows only one data series and is useful when you want to emphasize ONE significant element

MS Excel Charts

- XY (Scatter) Chart
- An xy (scatter) chart either shows the relationships among the numeric values in several data series or plots two groups of numbers as one series of xy coordinates. It shows uneven intervals, or clusters, of data and is commonly used for scientific data.

MS Excel Charts

- Doughnut Chart
- Like a pie chart, a doughnut chart shows the relationship of parts to a whole, but it can contain more than one data series. Each ring of the doughnut chart represents a data series
- Basically nestedPie-Charts

MS Excel Charts

- Radar Chart
- In a radar chart, each category has its own value axis radiating from the center point. Lines connect all the values in the same series. A radar chart compares the aggregate values of a number of data series.

MS Excel Charts

- Surface Chart
- A 3D surface chart is useful when you want to find optimum combinations between two sets of data. As in a topographic map, colors and patternsindicate areas thatare in the samerange of values.

MS Excel Charts

- Bubble Chart
- A bubble chart is a type of xy (scatter) chart. The size of the data marker indicates the value of a third variable.

MS Excel Charts

- Stock Chart
- The stock chart is often used to illustrate stock prices. This chart can also be used for scientific data, for example, to indicate temperature changes

MS Excel Charts

- Cone, Cylinder, and Pyramid Chart
- The cone, cylinder, and pyramid data markers can lend a dramatic effect to 3-D column and bar charts.

Graph Construction Demo

- Given Vapor Pressure Data

TABLE I: Vapor Pressure Data

Vapor pressures (mm Hg) of less than one atmosphere as a function of temperature. (All temperatures are in degrees Celsius)

Do in

Tutorial

http://research.umbc.edu/~lkelly/DAExp.htm

- Construct a Scatter Chart to Find the Clapeyron Eqn Constants m & bfor Stannic Chloride

Chart Construction Result

Demo_Excel_Table-n-Chart_Build_Fa06.xls

SLOPE & INTERCEPT Cmds

- Find Explicitly the Least-Sqsm&b for

All Done for Today

ExcelPlotting

Appendix

Time For

WhtBd Demo

Time For

Live Demo

Bruce Mayer, PE

Licensed Electrical & Mechanical [email protected]

Set Column Widths

2, 30, 11, 5, 30, 11, 5

Table Construction Demo (3)- Format Top & Bot Cells for VERTICAL Centering

- Format Fonts
- All RED
- Top, Bot, & Lt-End Rows Bold

Start

Open File Demo_Excel_Table-n-Chart_Build_0511.xls

Copy from Table from Slide-22 → Paste into Demo Sheet

Need Vertical Data

Chart Construction Demo (1)- Horizontal table starting in Col-H
- Copy Table Cells and EDIT → PASTE SPECIAL → transpose

Chart Construction Demo (2)

- Result after Transpose Paste

Archive Data

Make Scratch WorkSheet; Xfer horizontal Table to to this sheet

Edit Worksheet

Adjust Headings

Delete Cols other Than SnCl4

Move Remaining to Right

Chart Construction Demo (3)Place in cols A & B

1000/T; T in Kelvins

Ln(Pv)

Chart Construction Demo (4)- After Filling A & B

- Formula for Col-B
- =LN(E8)

Now need to Sort the Data with the indep var (1000/T) in ASCENDING ORDER

DATA → SORT

Chart Construction Demo (5)Chart Construction Demo (9)

- Chart Wizard Result

- Change
- X-axis Scale: 2.5-4
- Shorten Title
- Clear BackGround
- Lager, Sq Data Markers
- GridLine & Text Colors

Select Grid Lines, Rt-Clik, Chg ColorsChart Construction Demo (11)

- Select Data Series, Rt-Clik, Chg Marker

Select Data Series, Rt-Clik, Add TrendLnChart Construction Demo (14)

- Select: Linear, Display Parameters

Fine Tune TrendLine Form & DisplayChart Construction Demo (15)

- Done with Plot; and have determined m & b by Trendline
- Note that the Fit is Excellent; R2 = 99.92%

Add Fitted Data to tableChart Construction Demo (16)

Calc Error=(G4-E4)/E4

Calc Using m & b

Analysis of Fit Characteristics

Copy & Paste from Chart

- On Table: Select & Copy Data
- On chart: EDIT → PASTE SPECIAL → dialog Box above

Fine Tune Two-Variable DisplayChart Construction Demo (17)

- To Make Error Data More Visible Show using SECONDARY Axis at Right

Error Data Series

Coefficient of Correlation

- The coefficient of correlation is an indication of how well the linear relationship determined by the method of least squares fits the data set.
- The equation for the coefficient of correlation is:

Interpretation of R

- If Ris 0, the points are so scattered that the regression line does not help predict y for a given x.
- If R is +1 (positive slope) or –1 (negative slope), the points actually lie on a straight line so almost perfect predictions of y for a given x can be made using the regression line.

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