20 th century Iran. Westoxication & the Revolution. *see notes pages for more info on some slides. Gharbzadeg or Westoxication Push and Pull of the Modernization. Source: Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/atlas_middle_east/iran_timeline.jpg.
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20th century Iran
*see notes pages
for more info on
Gharbzadeg or Westoxication
Push and Pull of the Modernization
Source: Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection
1938 Time Magazine
Cover Story –
“20th Century Darius”
The Pahlavi Dynasty
- the Mythic Persian Conqueror,
though looking very
Western in this photo.
Grows increasingly autocratic
rather than constitutional
as the 1905-1911 crisis
dictated he should.
fear of continued political, economic, and cultural subordination to the West
Central problem of early modern Persia - How does one keep this land united?
White Revolution – Western style modernization
Promises never quite meet the reality of rural life.
Leads to further feelings of Westoxication as traditional
culture is viewed as one target of Shah’s reforms by conservative
Clerics such as Ayatollah Khomeini
= royal decadence
financed by oil wealth
Persepolis – October, 1971
Festivities cost est. $500 million*
*Source: Geoffrey Wawro, Naval College Review
Vol. LV, No.1, Winter 2002.
Image Sources: http://badraie.com/parade.htm
The Sides according to the Revolutionaries
The West (materialism & immorality)
SAVAK (tyranny & torture)
Islam (morality & duty)
Iran (independence & pride)
Element of theocracy introduced
into the democratic process
to ensure that un-Islamic abuses
(ie. Westoxication) does not happen
Power Structure of Iran post 1979 Revolution
Women and Youth in Post-Revolutionary Iran
Are they ardent supporters, wavering adherents, or adamant opponents?
Source: BBC http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/picture_gallery/04/middle_east_iran_hostage_crisis/html/1.stm
Women dominate in lower level posts
In line with global patterns, exceptional compared to many Islamic nations, but
does it meet the expectations of those who supported the Revolution?
Source: Women’s Socio-Cultural Council of the Islamic Republic of Iran http://www.iranwomen.org/zanan/english/statis.htm
Women & “Islamic Dress”
Chador – flowing outer garment
that covers the hijab (headscarf),
blouse, and skirt. Used to conform
with Islamic dress codes for women
in public post 1979.
Source: BBC http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/2936772.stm
In Spring of 2006, Ayatollah Khamenei
Upholds prohibition barring women from
attending soccer matches. These women
watch through a fence.
Source: Seattle Post-Intelligencer
1990 & 2000s
Generation born after the revolution is in its twenties. Is it still relevant to them?
Youth Unemployment 1997-2002
70% of population is under 30 in 2006
The Revolution seems like their parents’ past to many.
The present is about the lack of opportunity to a great number.
Source: Iranian Youth Today http://www.nyoir.org/ENG/Iranian-Youth-Today-Employment.htm
May 24th, 2006 Student Riots in Tehran
Triggered by dismissal of reformist professors and interference in
university affairs by militia groups (conservative forces)
former president (mixed)
Election of 2005
- controversial referendum on reform vs. hard-line revolutionaries
"Do you think you are dealing with a 4-year-old child to whom you can give some walnuts and chocolates and get gold from him?"
“Iran's achievements in all fields further motivates the vigilance of the world's free and independent nations, which eventually will lead to the downfall of the global arrogance"
*see notes pages
Rattle the saber a bit, and unemployment and the culture
police might be forgotten, but for how long?????