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The Math Chronicle. Women in Math!.

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The Math Chronicle.

Women in Math!

Roxana Hayward Vivian was born in Hyde Park, Boston, Massachusetts on December 9, 1871. She entered Wellesley College in 1890, graduating in 1894 with a B.A. degree after majoring in Greek and Mathematics. She then taught for one year at the Stoughton, Massachusetts, Public High School and for three years at Walnut Hill, a private preparatory school in Natick, Massachusetts. In 1898, Vivian began graduate studies at the University of Pennsylvania as a holder of the Alumnae Fellowship for Women. In 1901 she became the first woman to receive a Ph.D. in mathematics from the University of Pennsylvania. Her dissertation was entitled.Poles of a Right Line with Respect to a Curve of Order.

Vivian returned to Wellesley College in 1901 as an instructor in mathematics to take the place of Helen Merrill, who was on leave to continue her graduate studies. Vivian was the first member of the Wellesley mathematics department to have a doctorate. She was promoted to associate professor in 1908 and to full professor in 1918. During her twenty-six year career at Wellesley, Vivian had several leaves of absence. From 1906 to 1909 she taught at the American College for Girls, part of Constantinople College in Turkey, serving as acting president for her last two years there. She went to Constantinople in part because of her interest in philanthropic efforts in the United States and abroad, and her interest in education for women and girls in the Near East. After her return from Turkey she often gave lectures on life in Constantinople and Turkish problems.

Chelsee Phillips.

Self Help!

There are a variety of different methods that an individual might use to study a particular subject, but one of the most useful study methods is note taking. However, it is important for an individual to make sure that he or she takes notes effectively so the information included in the individual's notes is as complete and accurate as possible. In order for an individual to take effective notes, it is essential for the individual to make sure that he or she takes notes in an orderly and organized fashion, which can usually be done by using several simple organization techniques.

First, as you are taking notes, you should setup your notes as an outline with a main heading and possibly subheadings that allow you to quickly identify the topics that have been covered. The main heading should simply be the date, class, and the topic that is being covered. You may also use subheadings, if you have time, which splits the main topic into subtopics. For example, if you are taking notes in a world history class about the German invasion of Poland during World War II, you should write a main heading that includes today's date, world history, which is the name of the class, and World War II as the main topic. The German invasion of Poland could then be a subtopic and you could break that subtopic down even further separating events by the year in which they took place.

If the professor expands on a topic covered earlier in class that you have already taken notes on, you should try to write any new notes that you take about that topic in the same area as the notes that you originally took. This will be extremely useful when you go back to study the material because all of the material related to a specific topic will be in the same place. If your notes about a particular topic are spread out through your notebook, you will most likely miss important details about that specific topic when you’re studying. It is important to note, however, that there will be situations in which you do not have enough time to organize your notes during class, but you can always go back and reorganize your notes after the class is over.

Chelsee Phillips.

Careers involving Math

Nursing is a job that consist of math. Most of the math consists of drug calculations which range from fairly simple arithmetic to basic algebra. Critter Love says, “If I remember right, once I got through the pre-reqs, the only math-related questions on any of my tests were for drug calculations, and maybe some height/weight conversions between pounds/kg and inches/cm. There is also some math involved with hemodynamic calculations, but I have NEVER had to calculate that out myself .In the real nursing world, I rarely have to do any calculations. Pharmacy does the drug calculations for us, our IV pumps will do drip rate calculations, our charting program has a ht/wt converter, and our monitors will do the advanced hemodynamic equations for us.

However, it is very important that you are comfortable doing drug calculations yourself. At some point, you will probably find yourself in a situation where a pharmacist is not readily available to do the calculation for you, and you need to be able to do it yourself”.I don't think that the routine stuff is that hard, but then I'm pretty good at math. Here is an example that happened to me: Say you have an order for 55 mg solumedrol. The solumedrol vial you have is 125 mg in 1 ml. How many milliliters do you draw up? (0.44 mls) That is a relatively hard example. Most of the time its more along the lines of wanting to give 25 mg and having a vial of 50mg (give half), something you can do in your head without a calculator.” So you do use math in the health field just not as much anymore for the simple fact that we are so advanced in the technology these days. It’s amazing how we used to have to use paper and pencils to solve an easy equation. Things now days are a lot easier than many years ago.

Genetic Engineering.! Genetic engineering is a laboratory technique used by scientists to change the DNA of living organisms. DNA is the blueprint for the individuality of an organism. The organism relies upon the information stored in its DNA for the management of every biochemical process. The life, growth and unique features of the organism depend on its DNA. The segments of DNA which have been associated with specific features or functions of an organism are called genes. Molecular biologists have discovered many enzymes which change the structure of DNA in living organisms. Some of these enzymes can cut and join strands of DNA. Using such enzymes, scientists learned to cut specific genes from DNA and to build customized DNA using these genes. They also learned about vectors, strands of DNA such as viruses, which can infect a cell and insert themselves into its DNA. With this knowledge, scientists started to build vectors which incorporated genes of their choosing and used the new vectors to insert these genes into the DNA of living organisms. Genetic engineers believe they can improve the foods we eat by doing this. For example, tomatoes are sensitive to frost. This shortens their growing season. Fish, on the other hand, survive in very cold water. Scientists identified a particular gene which enables a flounder to resist cold and used the technology of genetic engineering to insert this 'anti-freeze' gene into a tomato. This makes it possible to extend the growing season of the tomato. At first glance, this might look exciting to some people. Deeper consideration reveals serious danger.

Genetic engineering is a job that consists of math. Math is used in nearly every aspect of robotic engineering. Greg G says, “Some basic examples for a robot used in manufacturing would be calculating the motor power or torque required for lifting an object. Variables in the calculation could be the amount of weight being lifted, the ratio of gears between the motor and lifting assembly, the length of a robotic arm (if used), and the speed at which the object needs to be lifted. These variables are also used to calculate the strength of the material used for the parts of the robot. Any extra weight added to the robot for strength decreases the amount of load the robot can lift. In many cases, extremely precise math is used to minimize the material used while maximizing the available lifting power. Generally speaking, math is needed in science, engineering (not just in robotics engineering), economics, finance, accounting, medicine, and practically everyday life. The difference would be whether you want to acquire more knowledge, to have a better understanding of the subject, to have a critical thinking instead of blindly accepting what others say, to advance in career and statue, to innovate, to expand your boundaries, and to apply to practical uses. You don't have to be an expert in all branches in math, but it would surely be advantageous that you know some math and enough to do your job or to pass the tests. Some things that you may not know about Robotic Engineering is, Robotics may be  the most inter-disciplinary of engineering endeavors. A mechanical engineer will design the robot's structure, its joint mechanisms, bearings, heat transfer characteristics, etc. Electrical engineers design the robot's control electronics, power amplifiers, signal conditioning, etc. Electro-mechanical engineers may work on the robot's sensors. Computer engineers will design the robot's computing hardware. Robot kinematics is great application of mathematics applied to robotics engineering. An undergraduate college degree in any of these fields is an excellent way to get started as a robotics engineer.

So you want to be a robotics engineer? Software engineering is probably the Achilles heel of robotics. The mechanical, electrical and computer engineers have built awesome machines, but they still are extremely difficult to put into production. This is because they are so difficult to teach. An expert technician `has to program the robot's every motion down to the tiniest minutia. In my opinion, the biggest contributions yet to be made in robotics will come from the software engineers. Companies are hiring robotics engineers to develop everything from automated vacuum cleaners to robot dogs. On the industrial side, robot sales topped $1.6 billion last year, up 60 percent from 1998. So if you enjoy math an robotic objects, this would be a job for you.

Paralegals! If math is not your strong suit, you should consider studying to become a Paralegal. Math is not a big part of the day-to-day job duties; you may go weeks without adding any numbers, and even the math required is very basic math. You can get a degree in paralegal studies in as little as two years and well-paying jobs are available everywhere and in all types of law practices, banks and mortgage companies.

Basic addition, subtraction, division and multiplication skills are generally all that you need. Occasionally you may need to work with percentages, and you must know how to multiply using decimals. You would not be expected to figure these out on paper as you will have access to a calculator whenever needed. Paralegals generally are not asked to do bookkeeping tasks, since most offices have their own billing department. If your position is a paralegal for a personal injury attorney, for instance, you would be adding medical expenses for clients, lost wages, and perhaps travel expenses for the client. Different attorney practices may work with construction law and you might be adding columns of costs, determining lost income or potential future wages. A paralegal for a real estate attorney might work with closing costs and fees to other parties, such as inspectors, appraisers or real estate agents.

So there are many jobs including math. Many different ways of math is used in each job. It just all depends on whether or not how much math you want to do as your career.

Alyssa Ortiz

Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke was the English natural philosopher, engineer, architect, and polymath that wrote the book called micrographia. He invented the spiral spring in watches, constructed the arithmetical machine (or calculator), and he was the founder of English Microscopy. Throughout the 1970s he worked with his friend Christopher Wren to rebuild London after The Great Fire of 1666. He was born in 1635 and died in 1703. He was born in Freshwater, Isle of Wright, England where he was the last of 4 children to the parents of John Hooke and Cecily Gyles. His father served the Church of England, and his 3 brothers were also ministers. Hooke was never married nor did he have children, though He never married, there was only one time where he seemed to be in love, that was with his niece, Jane Hooke, but though he became obsessed with her, she would not be faithful to him. Hooke was a very lonely person.

Hooke attended Westminster School in London, Christ Church, and he graduated from Oxford University with a master’s degree in 1663, at age 26. In 1655 he was employed by Boyle and his first project was to construct an air pump. He successfully designed and built whit is now the modern air pump. At the same time that he was working on the air pump he was also thinking about how clocks could be used in determining the longitude at sea. Not only that, but he also invented the conical pendulum, and was the first person to build a reflecting telescope. He then invented a Helioscope to measure the rotation of the sun using sunspots. He attempted to prove that the earth moves in an “ellipse” around the sun and six years later proposed that inverse square law of gravitation to explain planetary motions. He wrote to Newton in 1679 asking for his opinion. Hooke was unable to give proof of conjectures, however he claimed priority over the inverse square law and this led to a dispute between himself and Newton, who removed all references to Hooke from the Principia.

In 1687 the Principia was published, without recognition to Hooke. As if that was not enough, Hooke's niece also died that year. She was the niece who had “captured the heart of the aging scientist.” After the Principia publication and the death of Hooke's niece, his health went down a lot. It’s said that Hooke was inflicted with Scoliosis, a crippling degenerative disease that causes an unnatural curvature of the spine and would account for his "incurvature" and stooping posture. But he stayed active until the last year of his life when he possibly had a stroke and was confined to bed. As you can see, Hooke was at one time, a major contribution to mathematics.

Erica Harden

Erica Harden

Self- HelpTest-taking strategies

Many students have trouble while taking tests, so I have came across a solution that will help students all over with easy ways to take and pass a test. It almost seems impossible to pass tests and quizzes for certain people. The solution I have found is a commonly used strategy, known as DETER.

The D in DETER stands for directions. You should always read the direction first on the test very carefully, follow all directions, and ask your teacher to explain anything about the test directions that you do not understand. It is very important that you read all directions. The letter E stands for examine, examine the entire test to see how much you have to do. The letter T stands for time, once you have examined the test decide how much time you will spend on each problem, if there are different points on each problem try to finish the problems that count for more points, you would rather have more of the higher points counted then the lower. The next letter E means answer all questions that you find easier, first. If you get stuck on a problem that’s difficult for you early in the test, then you might not have enough time to finish the test. And last but not least R, which stands for Review. If you have planned your time correctly, you should have time to review over all questions, to make sure they are all complete and accurate.

Using the DETER strategy will be sure to help you pass all tests and quizzes, no problem! Don’t forget to help your friends out by telling them about this strategy.

Erica Harden


Erica Harden

Puzzle Solution.

Erica Harden

Word Problem

The Carters are buying a new CD player. Three stores have the model they want on sale this week. Here are the ads:

Radio Shop: Regular Price=$200, Discount=20% offDiscount City: Regular Price=$180, Discount=30% offRalph's: Regular Price=$210, Discount=10% off and Extra 20% off

Which store will give the Carters the best buy and what will the price be? Show all of the steps and label your answer.

Worked out solution:

$200*20%=40 $200-40= $160

$180*30%= 54 $180-54= $126

$210*10%+ 20%= 63 $210-63= $147

Discount City would be the best place to buy a CD player from, The Price will be $126.

Erica harden

Sophie Germain

Sophie Germain was born in Paris April 1st 1776, and had passed away June 27th 1831 at the age of 45. Sophie had a rough childhood growing up. When she was born the American Revolution War had begun, and at the age of 13 the French Revolution war began.

Sophie had two sisters Marie Madeline was the oldest and Angelique Ambroise was the youngest. Sophie’s fathers name is Ambroise Francois Germain. He was a wealthy middle class silk merchant and a French politician who served in the estates general and later in the constituent assembly, and later became a director of the bank in France. Sophie’s mothers name is Marie Madeline Gruguelu. She didn’t have a job. She was a stay at home mom.

Life was good for them money wise, but when it came down to the girl’s education, they didn’t have one. Sophie would read books from her father’s library. After her discovery of mathematics, Sophie had taught herself mathematics and also Latin and Greek so that she could read the classical mathematics texts. Sophie’s parents felt that her interest was inappropriate for a female, and, they did all they could to discourage her. She then began studying at night to escape them, but they went as far as taking away her clothes once she was in bed instead of studying. But of course Sophie didn’t let that get to her. She would wrap herself in a blanket and use candles she had hidden in order to study. After time went by, her parents finally allowed her to study.

In the year of 1794 when Sophie was 18 years old, the Ecole Poly technique was founded in Paris. It was an academy to train mathematicians and scientist of the country. Women were not able to attend this academy, but Sophie was able to obtain the lecture notes for a couple of the courses and study from them. This had given Sophie the opportunity to learn from many of the prominent mathematicians of the day.

Sophie was particularly interested in the teachings of J.L. Lagrange. Sophie had turned in a paper on analysis to Lagrange at the end of the term. He was quite impressed with the paper, and wanted to meet the student who written it. Lagrange was amazed to find out that a female had written it. He later became her mentor. With a male to introduce her, Sophie could enter the circle of scientists and mathematicians that she never before could. When Sophie’s was 28 she began corresponding with the German mathematician, Carl Fredrich Gauss. She was interested with his work in the number theory and sent him some results of her work. In 1808 Germain sent Gauss a letter describing some of her work in the number theory. Gauss had got a job as a professor, so never replied. Gauss had guided her work, so now she would have to find a new mentor.

About 12 years later, she wrote to the Mathematician Legendre about what would be her most important work in the number theory. “Germain proved that if X, Y, and Z are integers and if X^5+Y^5=Z^5 then either X, Y, Z must be divisible by 5. Germains theorem is a major step toward proving Fermat’s last theorem for the case where N equals 5. Fermat’s last theorem says that if X, Y, Z and N are integers then Xn+Yn=Zn can’t be solved for N greater than two. At about this time the French Academy of Sciences announced a contest to explain the “Underlying Mathematical Law” of a German physicist’s study on the vibration of elastic surfaces. Sophie was ecstatic about this; she had entered the contest three times before ever getting the award. After winning the contest, Sophie continued her work on the theory of elasticity publishing several more memoirs. She was the first woman who was not a wife of a member to attend the Academy of Sciences sessions with the help of Jean Baptist- Joseph Fourier. She was praised by the Institute De France and was invented to attend their sessions. This was the highest honor that this famous body ever conferred on a woman, Sophie had passed not to long after that, with the battle of breast cancer. Shortly before this Gauss, one of the earliest mentors had convinced the University of Gottingen to give Sophie an honorary degree. She died jus before receiving it. Sophie was an inspiration to many people. She battled against the social prejudices of the era and a lack of formal training in order to become a celebrated mathematician. She is best known for her work in the number theory, but her work in the theory of elasticity is also very important to mathematics.

Alyssa Ortiz

Alyssa Ortiz

5. Shawn bought a car for $5600. He sold it to Rachael for 5/6 the price he paid for it. Rachael sold it to Ray for 1/5 less than she paid for it. Ray sold it to Rick for 3/4 what he paid. What did Rick pay for the car?

5. $2700

Alyssa Ortiz



Alyssa Ortiz





Chelsee Phillips

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