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CNS Stimulants. Jenna Washuleski. Audience . What are CNS Stimulants. Central Nervous System Stimulants increase alertness, euphoria, and cause the user to feel more energized Also known as an “Upper” Reason for Dependence and Misuse Stimulants are classified in two categories

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Cns stimulants

CNS Stimulants

Jenna Washuleski



What are cns stimulants
What are CNS Stimulants

  • Central Nervous System Stimulants increase alertness, euphoria, and cause the user to feel more energized

    • Also known as an “Upper”

    • Reason for Dependence and Misuse

  • Stimulants are classified in two categories

    • Schedule I

      • “Designer” Amphetamines

    • Schedule II

      • Amphetamine, Cocaine, Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

  • Hanson, Glen R., Peter, Venturelli J., and Fleckenstein, Annette E. "Chapter 10: Stimulants." Drugs and Society. 11th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2012. 285-321. Print.

  • .


Cns stimulates
CNS Stimulates

  • Hanson, Glen R., Peter, Venturelli J., and Fleckenstein, Annette E. "Chapter 10: Stimulants." Drugs and Society. 11th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2012. 285-321. Print.

  • .


Amphetamines
Amphetamines

  • Video on Amphetamines (End video at 1:36)

  • Amphetamines are a sympathomimetic drug

    • Similar to neurotransmitters like dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and serotonin

  • Amphetamines increase the production of neurotransmitters (like dopamine) and prevent it from being recycled which creates a longer high feeling

BlueBelly. "How Stimulant Drugs Work." How Stimulant Drugs Work. BlueBelly, 09 June 2009. Web. 16 Apr. 2014.


Approved uses of amphetamines
Approved Uses of Amphetamines

  • Hanson, Glen R., Peter, Venturelli J., and Fleckenstein, Annette E. "Chapter 10: Stimulants." Drugs and Society. 11th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2012. 285-321. Print.

  • .


Approved uses of amphetamines continued
Approved Uses of Amphetamines (Continued)

  • Hanson, Glen R., Peter, Venturelli J., and Fleckenstein, Annette E. "Chapter 10: Stimulants." Drugs and Society. 11th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2012. 285-321. Print.

  • .


Types of amphetamines
Types of Amphetamines

Designer drugs are a product of amphetamine and methamphetamine that have prominent psychedelic effects in addition to their CNS stimulatory action.Some designer drugs are…

  • Hanson, Glen R., Peter, Venturelli J., and Fleckenstein, Annette E. "Chapter 10: Stimulants." Drugs and Society. 11th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2012. 285-321. Print.

  • .


Types of amphetamines continued
Types of Amphetamines (Continued)

  • Methamphetamine

  • Adderall

  • Adderall XR

  • Dexedrine

  • Detroamphetamine

    • Used for ADHD and narcolepsy

  • Levoamphetamine

    • A psychostimulant used to increase alertness

  • Dextrostat

  • Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

  • Concerta

  • Vyvanse

  • Procentra

  • Focalin

  • Strattera

  • Lisdexamfetamine

    • Used for ADHD

"Lists of Amphetamines." Amphetamines.com. N.p., 2014. Web. 11 Apr. 2014.


Common slang terms for amphetamines
Common Slang Terms for Amphetamines

"Amphetamine Facts." Amphetamines. Australian Drug Foundation, 27 Jan. 2013. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.


What do amphetamines look like
What Do Amphetamines Look Like?

"Amphetamine Facts." Amphetamines. Australian Drug Foundation, 27 Jan. 2013. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.


Method of administration
Method of Administration

"Amphetamine." Drugs Forum RSS. SIN Foundation, 2012. Web. 11 Apr. 2014.


Amphetamine effects
Amphetamine Effects

"Amphetamine." Drugs Forum RSS. SIN Foundation, 2012. Web. 11 Apr. 2014.


Methylphenidate ritalin
Methylphenidate (Ritalin)

  • “A Special Amphetamine”

  • Mild stimulant

  • Schedule II drug

  • Blocks the reuptake of dopamine and noradrenaline into their receptive neurons

  • Treats narcolepsy and ADHD

  • Intended to be used orally

    • Can be abused by snorting or when used as a performance enhancer

  • Hanson, Glen R., Peter, Venturelli J., and Fleckenstein, Annette E. "Chapter 10: Stimulants." Drugs and Society. 11th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2012. 285-321. Print.

  • .


Other stimulant products
Other Stimulant Products

  • Caffeine

  • Caffeine-like drugs (Xanthines)

    • Stay-Awake Products

    • Picker-Uppers

  • Herbal stimulants

    • Contain ephedrine, ephedra, or guarana

  • OTC Sympathomimetics

    • Cold, allergic, and diet aid medications

  • Performance Enhancers

    • Drugs taken to increase physical or mental performance to achieve a more positive result (Adderall for tests in school)

  • Methamphetamine

  • Cocaine

  • Crack cocaine

  • Daughtery, R., & O'Bryan, T. (2014). Prime for life. (8.0 ed.). Lexington, Kentucky, USA: Prevention Research Institute.


Caffeine
Caffeine

  • Hanson, Glen R., Peter, Venturelli J., and Fleckenstein, Annette E. "Chapter 10: Stimulants." Drugs and Society. 11th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2012. 285-321. Print.

  • .


Xanthine
Xanthine

  • Herbal “natural products”

  • Energy Drinks

  • Chocolate

  • Cocoa

  • Soft Drinks (Mountain Dew, Pepsi, Coca-Cola, etc.)

  • Hanson, Glen R., Peter, Venturelli J., and Fleckenstein, Annette E. "Chapter 10: Stimulants." Drugs and Society. 11th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2012. 285-321. Print.

  • .


Pharmacological effects of xanthine
PharmacologicalEffects of Xanthine

  • CNS Effects

    • 100-200 mg/day - Alertness, arousal, and reduces tiredness

    • 300+ mg/day – Insomnia, increased tension, anxiety, and muscle twitches

    • 500+ mg/day – panic sensations, chills, nausea, and clumsiness

    • Extreme doses/day – May result in seizures, respiratory failure, and even death

  • Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects

    • 500+ mg leads to increased heart activity

    • Can help with asthma-related respiratory problems

  • Caffeine Intoxication

    • Caffeinism: frequent high does of caffeine

  • Caffeine Dependence

    • Not likely to be an issue. Individual may experience headaches when not consuming caffeine, but it shouldn’t interfere with daily activity.

  • Hanson, Glen R., Peter, Venturelli J., and Fleckenstein, Annette E. "Chapter 10: Stimulants." Drugs and Society. 11th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2012. 285-321. Print.

  • .


Mdma ecstasy
MDMA (ECSTASY)

  • In late 1970s and early 1980s MDMA was used for psychotherapy

  • Schedule I Drug

  • Illegally manufactured

  • Causes user to feel sensory enhancement, psychedelic effects, hallucinations, and extreme euphoria

  • Often used at raves, clubs, and bars

  • Video on what MDMA does to your brain

“MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)”NIDA for Teens. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.


Mdma ecstasy street slang names
MDMA (Ecstasy) Street Slang Names

“MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)”NIDA for Teens. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.


Mdma ecstasy1
MDMA (Ecstasy)

  • Form

    • Pill, tablet, or capsule

    • Varies in colors

    • Often have cartoon-like images on them

  • Takes 15 minutes to enter bloodstream and reach brain

  • Takes 45 minutes to feel “high”

  • Last for 3 to 6 hours

“MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)”NIDA for Teens. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.


Mdma ecstasy negative effects
MDMA (Ecstasy) Negative Effects

  • Anxiousness

  • Sweating and chills

  • Dizziness

  • Muscle tension

  • Nausea

  • Blurred Vision

  • Increased heart rate

  • Increased blood pressure

  • Intense clenching of the teeth

  • Sadness and depression

    • Can last for several days to a week

  • Memory difficulties

    • Can become permanent

  • Dehydration that leads to hyperthermia

    • Lead to heart and kidney problems

    • Could lead to death

  • High levels in blood stream can lead to seizures

“MDMA (Ecstasy or Molly)”NIDA for Teens. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.


Methamphetamine
Methamphetamine

  • Hanson, Glen R., Peter, Venturelli J., and Fleckenstein, Annette E. "Chapter 10: Stimulants." Drugs and Society. 11th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2012. 285-321. Print.

  • .


Methamphetamine street slang names
Methamphetamine Street Slang Names

“Methamphetamine (Meth)." NIDA for Teens. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.


Methamphetamine1
Methamphetamine

“Methamphetamine (Meth)." NIDA for Teens. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.


Methamphetamine2
Methamphetamine

“Methamphetamine (Meth)." NIDA for Teens. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.


Methamphetamine3
Methamphetamine

“Methamphetamine (Meth)." NIDA for Teens. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.




Cocaine
Cocaine death.

Schedule II Drug

“Cocaine has been used as a stimulant

for thousands of years.”

"Cocaine." NIDA for Teens. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.


Street slang for cocaine
Street Slang for Cocaine death.

"Cocaine." NIDA for Teens. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.


Forms of cocaine
Forms of Cocaine death.

"Cocaine." NIDA for Teens. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.


Method of administration1
Method of Administration death.

Sometimes powder cocaine is rubbed onto tissues such as gums.

Freebasing: conversion of cocaine into its alkaline form for smoking

"Cocaine." NIDA for Teens. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.


Pharmacological effects of cocaine
Pharmacological death. Effects of Cocaine

  • Enhanced activity of dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline and serotonin transmitters

  • Blocks the reuptake and inactivation of these elements following their release from neurons

  • CNS Effects

    • Creates increased strength, energy, and performance

    • Increases euphoria, self-confidence, well-being, and sociability

  • Cardiovascular System Effects

    • Increases the levels of adrenaline, increases heart rate, raises blood pressure

  • Local Anesthetic Effects

    • Reduces bleeding

    • Topical numbing effects

  • Hanson, Glen R., Peter, Venturelli J., and Fleckenstein, Annette E. "Chapter 10: Stimulants." Drugs and Society. 11th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2012. 285-321. Print.

  • .


Effects of cocaine
Effects of Cocaine death.

  • Increased happiness and excitement

  • Talk, move, and think quickly

    Alertness, wakefulness, restlessness

    Heart beats faster

    Nervousness and anxiety

  • Mood swings

  • Aggressiveness

  • Paranoia

  • Twitching and shaking of the body

  • Increased Blood Pressure

  • Could lead to heart attack or stroke

  • Suppressed appetite

  • Possible weight loss

"Cocaine." NIDA for Teens. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.


Effects of cocaine1
Effects of Cocaine death.

  • If Individuals inject cocaine with dirty/shared needles, they are at higher risk for HIV/AIDS and hepatitis

  • Repeated snorting of cocaine can result in nosebleeds, constant runny nose, hoarseness, and sense of smell

    • Cocaine user developed a hole in their nose over a period of time.

  • Oral consumption may lead to bowel problems and reduce blood flow in the intestines

  • Overdose

    • Death

  • When the “high” wears off

    • “Crash” feeling

    • Fatigue

    • Sadness

    • Cravings to do more cocaine

    • Feeling of sickness, stomach pain, headaches

"Cocaine." NIDA for Teens. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.


Cocaine abstinence phases
Cocaine Abstinence Phases death.

  • Hanson, Glen R., Peter, Venturelli J., and Fleckenstein, Annette E. "Chapter 10: Stimulants." Drugs and Society. 11th ed. Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett, 2012. 285-321. Print.

  • .


Crack cocaine
Crack Cocaine death.

  • Already processed cocaine and making it pure again is crack cocaine

    • Could contain as much as 90% pure cocaine

  • Inexpensive

  • Typically smoked in a glass water pipe

    • A rush or high happens within 8 to 10 seconds

    • The high can last about 3 to 5 minutes

    • “Crash” occurs for 10 to 40 minutes

      • Extreme state of depression

  • "Cocaine." NIDA for Teens. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.


    Withdrawals from cns stimulants
    Withdrawals From CNS Stimulants death.

    "Amphetamine Facts." Amphetamines. Australian Drug Foundation, 27 Jan. 2013. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.


    Csn stimulants and pregnancy
    CSN Stimulants and Pregnancy death.

    Research done on CNS Stimulants and pregnancy is not fully understood and is not always clear because either there aren’t enough studies, or the current studies do not have well defined or properly matched pregnancy populations. Studies can also be contaminated there are poor nutrition, living conditions, and lifestyles, and other drug use such as alcohol was present during pregnancy. These symptoms are what may happen…

    • Amphetamines – If a pregnant mother are taking prescription medicine, she should talk to her doctor about further taking medication.

    • Caffeine - Pregnant mothers should have less than 200 mg/day. Mothers who chose to drink caffeine are at higher risk of miscarriage and stillbirth. There can be slight reduction in weight of baby at birth.

    • MDMA (Ecstasy) - There has not been enough research in this area.

    • Methamphetamine – Low birth weight, Cleft palates, Premature birth, Mental and physical birth defects, Increased risk of miscarriage

    • Cocaine “Cocaine Babies” - Low birth weight, Premature birth, Small head, Increased irritability, Cognitive defects, Problems with motor skills and language development, Problems gathering info, short attention span. There is a high rate of mother’s abandoning their babies after birth.

    • Crack Cocaine “Crack Babies” – Similar defects to Cocaine Babies

    • Daughtery, R., & O'Bryan, T. (2014). Prime for life. (8.0 ed.). Lexington, Kentucky, USA: Prevention Research Institute.

    "Amphetamine Facts." Amphetamines. Australian Drug Foundation, 27 Jan. 2013. Web. 10 Apr. 2014.

    "Caffeine during Pregnancy." BabyCenter. BabyCenter, L.L.C., Apr. 2012. Web. 15 Apr. 2014.

    Pappas, Stephanie. "Ecstasy in Pregnancy Is Bad for Baby, Study Finds."LiveScience. TechMedia Network, 08 Mar. 2012. Web. 15 Apr. 2014.

    Chait, Jennifer. "What Are the Effects of Crystal Meth on Pregnancy?"LoveToKnow. Love To Know Corp., 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 15 Apr. 2014.

    "Cocaine." NIDA for Teens. National Institute on Drug Abuse, 24 Mar. 2014. Web. 12 Apr. 2014.


    Treatment for dependence on cns stimulants
    Treatment for Dependence death. on CNS Stimulants

    Recovery Story, 15 Reasons to Overcome Addiction


    In the appropriate box, write down the pros and cons based on your low risk choices towards CNS Stimulants. Then write down the pros and cons of continued high risk choices.

    Low Risk Choices

    High Risk Choices

    PROS

    Daughtery, R., & O'Bryan, T. (2014). Prime for life. (8.0 ed.). Lexington, Kentucky, USA: Prevention Research Institute

    CONS

    In the video from the previous slide, Jessica listed 15 reasons to stay sober. What reasons can you think of? This chart will help you decide.


    Conclusion
    Conclusion on your low risk choices towards CNS Stimulants. Then write down the pros and cons of continued high risk choices.

    • If you or someone you know has an addiction, take action today!


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