Disorders of the endocrine system
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Disorders of the Endocrine System. Thyroid Gland. Hormone : Thyroxin Overactivity (Too much hormone) Increased metabolic rate Increased food intake but loss of weight Hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease) Goitre (swollen neck, maybe bulging eyes). Goitre. Thyroid Gland. Hormone: Thyroxin

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Disorders of the Endocrine System

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Disorders of the Endocrine System


Thyroid Gland

Hormone: Thyroxin

Overactivity (Too much hormone)

  • Increased metabolic rate

  • Increased food intake but loss of weight

  • Hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease)

  • Goitre (swollen neck, maybe bulging eyes)


Goitre


Thyroid Gland

Hormone: Thyroxin

Underactivity (Not enough hormone)

  • Hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease)

    - Reduced metabolic rate

  • Low food intake but gain of weight

  • Myxoedema (when onset in adults)

  • Cretinism (when onset in children)

  • Can also cause a goitre


Myxoedema

  • Puffiness (swelling)

  • Fatigue

  • Obesity

  • Dry, thickened skin

  • Mental impairment

  • Thin, brittle hair


Cretinism

  • Protuberant abdomen

  • Short Stature

  • Infertility

  • Neurological impairment

  • Constant Fatigue

  • Obesity


Thyroid Gland

Hormone: Calcitonin

Overactivity

- Increased Bone Ca, decreased Blood Ca

- Tetany (nerve problems leading to muscle spasms or cramps)

Underactivity

- Increase Blood Ca, decreased Bone Ca

  • Osteoporosis (brittle bones)

  • Kidney stones


Parathyroid Glands

Hormone: Parathormone (PTH)

Underactivity

  • Low Blood calcium, High Bone Ca

  • Tetany

    Overactivity

  • High Blood calcium, Low Bone Ca

  • Osteoporosis


Pancreas

Hormone: Insulin

Overactivity

  • Low blood sugar level ( ↓BSL)

  • Hypoglycemia

    Underactivity

  • High blood sugar level ( ↑BSL)

  • Hyperglycemia

  • Diabetes


Pancreas

Hormone: Glucagon

Overactivity

  • High blood sugar level ( ↑BSL)

  • Diabetes

    Underactivity

  • Low blood sugar level ( ↓BSL)

  • Hyper insulinism


Anterior Pituitary Gland

Hormone:Growth Hormone

Overactive

  • Giantism (children - very tall)

  • Acromegaly (adults - bones & skin thicken)

    Underactive

    - Dwarfism (very short)


The man holding the baby in the photo is 8 ft, 2.5 inches tall

Giantism


Acromegaly


Dwarfism occurs when there is short supply of GH in childhood. There are two types of dwarfism – Lorrain and Frohlich’s

Dwarfism


CHART ANSWERS


Overactive

Goitre

Hyperthyroidism

Grave’s Disease

Underactive

Goitre

Hypothyroidism

Hashimoto’s Disease

Myxoedema (adults)

Cretinism (kids)

Thyroxin – increases metabolic rate


Overactive

Tetany

Underactive

Kidney Stones

Osteoporosis

Calcitonin – Inc. Ca uptake by bones and dec. Ca level in blood


Overactive

Kidney Stones

Osteoporosis

Underactive

Tetany

Parathormone (PTH) – inc. Ca level in blood, dec. Ca level in bone


Overactive

Hypoglycemia

Hyperinsulinism (insulin shock)

Underactive

Hyperglycemia

Diabetes

Insulin – dec. blood sugar levels


Calcitonin Vs. Parathormone

Blood Ca

Blood Ca

Blood Ca

Blood Ca

Tetany

  • Osteoporosis

  • Kidney Stones

Blood Ca

Blood Ca

Tetany

  • Osteoporosis

  • Kidney Stones


Overactive

Hyperglycemia

Diabetes

Underactive

Hypoglycemia

Hyperinsulinism

Glucagon – inc. blood sugar levels


Insulin vs Glucagon

BSL

BSL

BSL

BSL

BSL

Hypoglycemia

  • Hyperglycemia

  • Diabetes

BSL

Hypoglycemia

  • Hyperglycemia

  • Diabetes


Overactive

Giantism (children)

Acromegaly (adults)

Underactive

Dwarfism (Frohlich’s and Lorrain)

GH - Growth Hormone – increases bone growth


Overactive

Skin darkens

Under active

Skin will not darken

Most severe condition is albinism

MSH - Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone – causes color cells (melanocytes) in skin to darken


Overactive

Unknown

Underactive

Sterility

LH, FSH, ICTH – sex hormones in males and females that aid in sperm or egg (gamete) production


Overactive

Cushing’s Syndrome

Underactive

Addison’s Disease

Decreased cortisol and/or aldosterone production

Corticoids – inc. blood pressure, inc. food metabolism and dec. inflammation


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