Disorders of the endocrine system
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Disorders of the Endocrine System. Thyroid Gland. Hormone : Thyroxin Overactivity (Too much hormone) Increased metabolic rate Increased food intake but loss of weight Hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease) Goitre (swollen neck, maybe bulging eyes). Goitre. Thyroid Gland. Hormone: Thyroxin

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Disorders of the Endocrine System

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Disorders of the endocrine system

Disorders of the Endocrine System


Thyroid gland

Thyroid Gland

Hormone: Thyroxin

Overactivity (Too much hormone)

  • Increased metabolic rate

  • Increased food intake but loss of weight

  • Hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease)

  • Goitre (swollen neck, maybe bulging eyes)


Goitre

Goitre


Thyroid gland1

Thyroid Gland

Hormone: Thyroxin

Underactivity (Not enough hormone)

  • Hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease)

    - Reduced metabolic rate

  • Low food intake but gain of weight

  • Myxoedema (when onset in adults)

  • Cretinism (when onset in children)

  • Can also cause a goitre


Myxoedema

Myxoedema

  • Puffiness (swelling)

  • Fatigue

  • Obesity

  • Dry, thickened skin

  • Mental impairment

  • Thin, brittle hair


Cretinism

Cretinism

  • Protuberant abdomen

  • Short Stature

  • Infertility

  • Neurological impairment

  • Constant Fatigue

  • Obesity


Thyroid gland2

Thyroid Gland

Hormone: Calcitonin

Overactivity

- Increased Bone Ca, decreased Blood Ca

- Tetany (nerve problems leading to muscle spasms or cramps)

Underactivity

- Increase Blood Ca, decreased Bone Ca

  • Osteoporosis (brittle bones)

  • Kidney stones


Parathyroid glands

Parathyroid Glands

Hormone: Parathormone (PTH)

Underactivity

  • Low Blood calcium, High Bone Ca

  • Tetany

    Overactivity

  • High Blood calcium, Low Bone Ca

  • Osteoporosis


Pancreas

Pancreas

Hormone: Insulin

Overactivity

  • Low blood sugar level ( ↓BSL)

  • Hypoglycemia

    Underactivity

  • High blood sugar level ( ↑BSL)

  • Hyperglycemia

  • Diabetes


Pancreas1

Pancreas

Hormone: Glucagon

Overactivity

  • High blood sugar level ( ↑BSL)

  • Diabetes

    Underactivity

  • Low blood sugar level ( ↓BSL)

  • Hyper insulinism


Anterior pituitary gland

Anterior Pituitary Gland

Hormone:Growth Hormone

Overactive

  • Giantism (children - very tall)

  • Acromegaly (adults - bones & skin thicken)

    Underactive

    - Dwarfism (very short)


Giantism

The man holding the baby in the photo is 8 ft, 2.5 inches tall

Giantism


Acromegaly

Acromegaly


Dwarfism

Dwarfism occurs when there is short supply of GH in childhood. There are two types of dwarfism – Lorrain and Frohlich’s

Dwarfism


Chart answers

CHART ANSWERS


Thyroxin increases metabolic rate

Overactive

Goitre

Hyperthyroidism

Grave’s Disease

Underactive

Goitre

Hypothyroidism

Hashimoto’s Disease

Myxoedema (adults)

Cretinism (kids)

Thyroxin – increases metabolic rate


Calcitonin inc ca uptake by bones and dec ca level in blood

Overactive

Tetany

Underactive

Kidney Stones

Osteoporosis

Calcitonin – Inc. Ca uptake by bones and dec. Ca level in blood


Parathormone pth inc ca level in blood dec ca level in bone

Overactive

Kidney Stones

Osteoporosis

Underactive

Tetany

Parathormone (PTH) – inc. Ca level in blood, dec. Ca level in bone


Insulin dec blood sugar levels

Overactive

Hypoglycemia

Hyperinsulinism (insulin shock)

Underactive

Hyperglycemia

Diabetes

Insulin – dec. blood sugar levels


Calcitonin vs parathormone

Calcitonin Vs. Parathormone

Blood Ca

Blood Ca

Blood Ca

Blood Ca

Tetany

  • Osteoporosis

  • Kidney Stones

Blood Ca

Blood Ca

Tetany

  • Osteoporosis

  • Kidney Stones


Glucagon inc blood sugar levels

Overactive

Hyperglycemia

Diabetes

Underactive

Hypoglycemia

Hyperinsulinism

Glucagon – inc. blood sugar levels


Insulin vs glucagon

Insulin vs Glucagon

BSL

BSL

BSL

BSL

BSL

Hypoglycemia

  • Hyperglycemia

  • Diabetes

BSL

Hypoglycemia

  • Hyperglycemia

  • Diabetes


Gh g rowth h ormone increases bone growth

Overactive

Giantism (children)

Acromegaly (adults)

Underactive

Dwarfism (Frohlich’s and Lorrain)

GH - Growth Hormone – increases bone growth


Msh m elanocyte s timulating h ormone causes color cells melanocytes in skin to darken

Overactive

Skin darkens

Under active

Skin will not darken

Most severe condition is albinism

MSH - Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone – causes color cells (melanocytes) in skin to darken


Lh fsh icth sex hormones in males and females that aid in sperm or egg gamete production

Overactive

Unknown

Underactive

Sterility

LH, FSH, ICTH – sex hormones in males and females that aid in sperm or egg (gamete) production


Corticoids inc blood pressure inc food metabolism and dec inflammation

Overactive

Cushing’s Syndrome

Underactive

Addison’s Disease

Decreased cortisol and/or aldosterone production

Corticoids – inc. blood pressure, inc. food metabolism and dec. inflammation


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