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Disorders of the Endocrine System. Thyroid Gland. Hormone : Thyroxin Overactivity (Too much hormone) Increased metabolic rate Increased food intake but loss of weight Hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease) Goitre (swollen neck, maybe bulging eyes). Goitre. Thyroid Gland. Hormone: Thyroxin

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thyroid gland
Thyroid Gland

Hormone: Thyroxin

Overactivity (Too much hormone)

  • Increased metabolic rate
  • Increased food intake but loss of weight
  • Hyperthyroidism (Grave’s disease)
  • Goitre (swollen neck, maybe bulging eyes)
thyroid gland1
Thyroid Gland

Hormone: Thyroxin

Underactivity (Not enough hormone)

  • Hypothyroidism (Hashimoto’s disease)

- Reduced metabolic rate

  • Low food intake but gain of weight
  • Myxoedema (when onset in adults)
  • Cretinism (when onset in children)
  • Can also cause a goitre
myxoedema
Myxoedema
  • Puffiness (swelling)
  • Fatigue
  • Obesity
  • Dry, thickened skin
  • Mental impairment
  • Thin, brittle hair
cretinism
Cretinism
  • Protuberant abdomen
  • Short Stature
  • Infertility
  • Neurological impairment
  • Constant Fatigue
  • Obesity
thyroid gland2
Thyroid Gland

Hormone: Calcitonin

Overactivity

- Increased Bone Ca, decreased Blood Ca

- Tetany (nerve problems leading to muscle spasms or cramps)

Underactivity

- Increase Blood Ca, decreased Bone Ca

  • Osteoporosis (brittle bones)
  • Kidney stones
parathyroid glands
Parathyroid Glands

Hormone: Parathormone (PTH)

Underactivity

  • Low Blood calcium, High Bone Ca
  • Tetany

Overactivity

  • High Blood calcium, Low Bone Ca
  • Osteoporosis
pancreas
Pancreas

Hormone: Insulin

Overactivity

  • Low blood sugar level ( ↓BSL)
  • Hypoglycemia

Underactivity

  • High blood sugar level ( ↑BSL)
  • Hyperglycemia
  • Diabetes
pancreas1
Pancreas

Hormone: Glucagon

Overactivity

  • High blood sugar level ( ↑BSL)
  • Diabetes

Underactivity

  • Low blood sugar level ( ↓BSL)
  • Hyper insulinism
anterior pituitary gland
Anterior Pituitary Gland

Hormone:Growth Hormone

Overactive

  • Giantism (children - very tall)
  • Acromegaly (adults - bones & skin thicken)

Underactive

- Dwarfism (very short)

dwarfism
Dwarfism occurs when there is short supply of GH in childhood. There are two types of dwarfism – Lorrain and Frohlich’sDwarfism
thyroxin increases metabolic rate
Overactive

Goitre

Hyperthyroidism

Grave’s Disease

Underactive

Goitre

Hypothyroidism

Hashimoto’s Disease

Myxoedema (adults)

Cretinism (kids)

Thyroxin – increases metabolic rate
calcitonin inc ca uptake by bones and dec ca level in blood
Overactive

Tetany

Underactive

Kidney Stones

Osteoporosis

Calcitonin – Inc. Ca uptake by bones and dec. Ca level in blood
parathormone pth inc ca level in blood dec ca level in bone
Overactive

Kidney Stones

Osteoporosis

Underactive

Tetany

Parathormone (PTH) – inc. Ca level in blood, dec. Ca level in bone
insulin dec blood sugar levels
Overactive

Hypoglycemia

Hyperinsulinism (insulin shock)

Underactive

Hyperglycemia

Diabetes

Insulin – dec. blood sugar levels
calcitonin vs parathormone
Calcitonin Vs. Parathormone

Blood Ca

Blood Ca

Blood Ca

Blood Ca

Tetany

  • Osteoporosis
  • Kidney Stones

Blood Ca

Blood Ca

Tetany

  • Osteoporosis
  • Kidney Stones
glucagon inc blood sugar levels
Overactive

Hyperglycemia

Diabetes

Underactive

Hypoglycemia

Hyperinsulinism

Glucagon – inc. blood sugar levels
insulin vs glucagon
Insulin vs Glucagon

BSL

BSL

BSL

BSL

BSL

Hypoglycemia

  • Hyperglycemia
  • Diabetes

BSL

Hypoglycemia

  • Hyperglycemia
  • Diabetes
gh g rowth h ormone increases bone growth
Overactive

Giantism (children)

Acromegaly (adults)

Underactive

Dwarfism (Frohlich’s and Lorrain)

GH - Growth Hormone – increases bone growth
msh m elanocyte s timulating h ormone causes color cells melanocytes in skin to darken
Overactive

Skin darkens

Under active

Skin will not darken

Most severe condition is albinism

MSH - Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone – causes color cells (melanocytes) in skin to darken
lh fsh icth sex hormones in males and females that aid in sperm or egg gamete production
Overactive

Unknown

Underactive

Sterility

LH, FSH, ICTH – sex hormones in males and females that aid in sperm or egg (gamete) production
corticoids inc blood pressure inc food metabolism and dec inflammation
Overactive

Cushing’s Syndrome

Underactive

Addison’s Disease

Decreased cortisol and/or aldosterone production

Corticoids – inc. blood pressure, inc. food metabolism and dec. inflammation
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