Geog 352 day 13
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GEOG 352: Day 13. Review for Mid-Term. Today, Kim will do her presentation on the tragedy of the commons, and then we will focus on a review for Thursday’s mid-term. Remember to review the glossary in the textbook when preparing for the mid-term.

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GEOG 352: Day 13

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GEOG 352: Day 13

Review for Mid-Term


  • Today, Kim will do her presentation on the tragedy of the commons, and then we will focus on a review for Thursday’s mid-term.

  • Remember to review the glossary in the textbook when preparing for the mid-term.

  • Reminder that there is space tomorrow at 4 p.m. in Imogene Lim’s food systems course (Building 356, Room 334) to hear guest speaker Robert Fox of Oxfam on strategies for meeting global food challenge in the coming decades.

Housekeeping Items


  • How do the workings of the economy relate to space and place – the characteristics of which, and the relations between, being the specific province of geographers?

  • How are nature and culture affected by economic activity?

  • How do differences in culture, ideology, and government change how people respond to economic phenomena?

  • What differentiates the traditional profit-making activity of industry and retail from what was portrayed in the movie The Inside Job?

Items for Review


  • How do ecological economists differ from mainstream neo-classical economists?

  • Where does historian Karl Polanyi fit into all of this?

  • What is a “triple-bottom line” approach?

  • What are the five (or sometimes six) forms of capital, and how would you define them?

Source: Itusozluk

Items for Review


CURRENT VS.

PROPOSED MODEL

OF THE ECONOMY


  • What ends does (and should) an economy serve?

  • What ends does our current economy serve?

  • What is the definition of an opportunity cost?

  • The authors offer this definition of opportunity cost: “the best alternative given up when a choice is made.”

  • How would you define open systems, closed systems, and isolated systems? What type is the Earth?

  • What are the implications of this for the economy?

  • Is nature a subsystem of the economy?

ITEMS FOR REVIEW


  • When does growth become uneconomic?

  • What is throughput?

  • What is the difference between an empty world and a full worldand how does it manifest?

  • What is drawdown?

  • What is overshoot?

ITEMS FOR REVIEW


  • What is the optimum size for an economy or activity?

  • What is diminishing marginal utility?

  • What is the law of increasing marginal cost?

  • What is natural capital and some of its different aspects?

  • Are there limits to human ability to substitute for natural capital?

  • Why can’t the human population and economy increase forever?

ITEMS FOR REVIEW


  • Ultimately, ecological economists want to make us aware that the economy is not only circular, but also linear.

production and sale of goods and services

wages, salaries, and profits

investment

re-investment

Another Way of looking at circularity and linearity….

THROUGHPUT

extraction/ depletion of raw materialsproduction & consumptionwaste & pollution


  • What are the 1st and 2nd laws of thermo-dynamics and how do they influence the workings of the economy?

  • Do they affect renewable and non-renewable resources in different ways?

  • The authors discuss an ends-means spectrum: ultimate ends, intermediate ends, intermediate means, ultimate means. What do these refer to in relation to the economy?

  • Have there been similarities between capitalism and ‘communism’?

  • What is the difference between growth and development?

ITEMS FOR REVIEW


  • What is the difference between stock-flow and fund-service resources, and what are some examples?

  • What distinguishes excludable and non-excludable resources, and what are some examples?

  • What distinguishes rival and non-rival resources, and what are some examples?

  • Are there instances of non-rival resources being made excludable?

ITEMS FOR REVIEW


  • What are some of the eight goods and services provided by nature?

  • Are there distinctions amongst abiotic resources?

  • Where does fresh water and soil fit in terms of renewable and non-renewable resources?

  • What is EROI and how has it been changing?

  • Apart from depletion, what other kinds of ecological impacts/ natural capital depreciation are associated with fossil fuel and mineral extraction?

ITEMS FOR REVIEW


  • Is water a stock-flow or fund-service resource?

  • Are fossil fuels and minerals rival or non-rival and over what time scale?

  • What are the three functions of biotic resources?

  • How are ecosystems characterized by non-linear behaviourand what implications does this hold for the precautionary principle?

  • What are some of the challenges associated with the concept of sustained (or sustainable) yield?

ITEMS FOR REVIEW


  • What is an ecosystem service?

  • What are the lessons of Biosphere 2?

  • Do the products and services of nature have the characteristics necessary to be efficiently allocated by the market – why or why not?

  • What are congestible resources, and are there different types?

  • What are public goods?

  • What is the free rider effect?

  • Non-excludable rival resources: are they best described as a commons or as open-access systems?

  • What difficulties do these systems run into?

ITEMS FOR REVIEW


  • What was the fate of the commons over the last 500 years?

  • In terms of the invisible hand of self-interest, when does it lead to the common good and when does it lead to market failure?

  • What is the “tragedy of the non-commons”?

  • What are externalities?

  • What is intertemporal discounting?

  • Is human nature selfish or altruistic or does it depend on context?

  • What kinds of convergences are occurring between biology and economics?

ITEMS FOR REVIEW


  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of the Garrett Hardin and Ridley and Low articles?

  • What are the implications for the environmental movement?

  • What are the characteristics of homo economicus? Is this an accurate picture of humans, and what role does culture play in shaping human nature?

  • What is the Easterlin paradox?

  • What makes people happy and are there any constants across culture?

ITEMS FOR REVIEW


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