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GEOGRAPHY 2091 Principles and Practice of Eco-tourism Course Teacher Yiping Li Department of Geography The University of Hong Kong Spring 2010






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GEOGRAPHY 2091 Principles and Practice of Eco-tourism Course Teacher Yiping Li Department of Geography The University of Hong Kong Spring 2010. GEOG 2091 Principles and Practice of Eco-tourism #1.1 General Introduction. Textbook:
GEOGRAPHY 2091 Principles and Practice of Eco-tourism Course Teacher Yiping Li Department of Geography The University of Hong Kong Spring 2010

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GEOGRAPHY 2091Principles and PracticeofEco-tourismCourse TeacherYiping LiDepartment of GeographyThe University of Hong KongSpring 2010

Slide 2

GEOG 2091 Principles and Practice of Eco-tourism#1.1 General Introduction

Textbook:

  • Weaver, D. (2008). Ecotourism. Milton, Qld. Australia: John Wiley & Sons (ISBN: 0470813040)

    Recommended readings:

  • Fennell, D. A (2008)Ecotourism: An introduction. New York, NY: Routledge (ISBN:9780415429313) (electronic source is also available)

  • Other reference papers will be recommended relevant to specific lectures of this course

Slide 3

MAIN FOUCS

  • Examine issues of eco-tourism from perspectives of different agents:

    • host communities, tourists, environmentalists and industry

  • Analyze interactions between tourism and natural environment through global cases

  • Discuss prospects of eco-tourism development in Hong Kong and China

Slide 4

Lecture Topics

What is ecotourism?

  • General concepts and basic terms

  • Ecotourism in local context (Landscapes of Hong Kong and the ecotourism prospects):

    Principles of ecotourism

  • Evolution of “green” standards for tourism

  • Green consumers vs green travellers

Slide 5

  • Ecotourism environments

  • Ecotourism impacts

    Practice of ecotourism

  • Structure of the ecotourism industry

  • Planning for ecotourism

    • Community involvement

  • Marketing for eco-tourism

    • Ecotourism ethics and certification

Slide 6

  • Customer care and risk management for ecotourism

    Prospects of local ecotourism development

  • Analysis of cases in Hong Kong and China

    Exercise

  • Field study and / or volunteer Project presentation

Slide 7

Please Note:Course content and orderofpresentations mayDEVIATEfrom the general outline of the content due to unforeseen circumstances.

Slide 8

Course Objectives

By the completion of this course, each student will have had the opportunities to enhance competencies in:

  • knowledge of current trends in ecotourism

  • ability to discuss the importance of the local ecology, culture, history and economic development balanced with a social responsibility

  • ability to identify ecotourism markets

  • developing a feasibility study for potential ecotourism projects

  • knowledge of eco tour planning and site development

Slide 9

LECTURE NOTES

  • No lecture notes will be distributed

  • The teaching notes of each lecture will be placed in this course weblink:

http://geog.hku.hk/undergrad/geog2091/

Slide 10

Mutual Expectations & Codes of Civility

You can expect me to

  • Come prepared for, and attend, all lectures regularly and punctually

    I demand the same from you, and will consider these unacceptable behaviors:

  • Reading during a lecture

  • Consuming food or drink

  • Littering the lecture room

  • Using MP3, mobile phone, etc., which may impede the ability of you or other students to learn

    If we all abide by this code of civility and mutual respect, we set the stage for a healthy and stimulating intellectual forum.

Slide 11

Assessment (100% Coursework)Your standing in this course will be based on your performance in completing 2 written assignments and an open-book quiz

Purposes:

  • Offer you an opportunity to penetrate fairly deeply into an issue or theme of ecotourism studies

  • Help you coordinate and consolidate concepts and information obtained from the readings and the lectures through critical and practical applications

In general, your final grade will be gained by your performance in completing the following:

Slide 12

Assignment #1: Advertising analysis (20 points, due by 4:30pm on Monday, March 8th, 2010)

  • Cut out a tourism ad (preferably focused on ecotourism or nature-based tourism) in a magazine, a newspaper, a brochure, or a website, etc. From the message received, thoroughly describe:

    • the audience you think is being targeted

    • how the ad described the product of sale

    • whether or not the ad described the 4 criteria of ecotourism, and

    • why you think the ad was successful/unsuccessful at reaching/attracting its target audience

  • Your analysis should be completed within 350 words, and submitted together with the original tourism ad. Delay submission will result in mark deduction or zero mark

Slide 13

Assignment #2: Field study project (40 points, due by 4:30pm Friday, April 30th, 2010)

  • Participate in a field trip to HK Wetland Park (March 6th)

  • Do a critical reflection of HK Wetland Park, with regards to the Park’s development in terms of the 4 criteria of ecotourism

    • It is natural-based tourism practice

    • Education is a priority message that is delivered to audience

    • Target of development should be sustainable tourism

    • It is, after all, part of the tourism industry

  • Hand in your field study project of 1500 words (minimum requirement) exclusive of references and footnotes in double-space presentation on A4 paper.

Slide 14

  • Your must followGeography Department’sGuidelines on the Use of Reference Materials

  • You must submit your written assignments via Geography Department Assignment Collection Boxin the Department’s General Office. Other means of submission will NOT be accepted

  • If you have any questions regarding my method of assessing your performance in this course, please do not hesitate to contact your TA or me

Slide 15

Assignment #3: Open-book quiz (40 points, in the last lecture of this course)

  • This will be a 60-minute quiz. Quiz content will be 100% based on lecture notes. Missing it will result in a 40% loss of your final mark for this course

Slide 16

My office hours:

Tuesday 14:30 – 17:30

My office:

#306 Hui Oi Chow Building

Slide 17

GEOG 2091 Principles and Practice of Eco-tourism#1.2General Concepts & Basic Terms

Learning Objectives:

  • Explain the circumstances that resulted in the emergence of ecotourism

    • The basic terminology and concept

    • Fundamental principles for practice

    • Who would be ecotourists?

  • Understand the complexities for applying the concept of sustainability to ecotourism practice

  • Appreciate importance of geographic knowledge for studying ecotourism

Reference:

Weaver, D. (2008). Ecotourism (Chapter#1). Milton, Qld. Australia: John Wiley & Sons

Martin, M. (2005). Weather, Climate and Tourism: a Geographic Perspective. Annals of Tourism Research 22 (3): 571-591

Slide 18

Learning objective #1

  • Explain the circumstances that resulted in the emergence of ecotourism

    • The basic terminology and concept

    • Fundamental principles for practice

      Question #1 (for your homework):

      What are the 4 platforms that Jafari (1989) suggested the field of tourism studies has advanced through since the end of World War II?

  • Please read:

    Weaver, D. (2008). Ecotourism (Chapter#1). Milton, Qld. Australia: John Wiley & Sons

Slide 19

Conceptualizing basic terminology and conceptWhat Are the 4 Core Criteria of ECOTOURISM?

  • Practice:

    • a form of tourism

  • Resource

    • Nature-based(occurs in a natural setting)

  • Moral Ideal/Principle:

    • Educative(enhance environmental learning and awareness)

  • Planning & Management Objective

    • Sustainable for both destination community and nature environment

Slide 20

NATURE-BASED –Eco refers to ‘ecological’; with reference to nature & the environment, such as the flora and fauna of an area.

Slide 21

Should all nature based tourism be regarded as eco-tourism?

Slide 22

To be ECO-TOURISM, the tourism practice must also include 2 other elements

1. EDUCATION

Slide 23

2. SUSTAINABILITY

Slide 24

Who would be ecotourists: 3 market segments?

1)Socially Aware Segment

  • aged between 35 and 49

  • the most educated of all the groups

  • employed as upmarket professionals earning over AU$77,000

  • taking a thoughtful and strategic approach to life

  • being politically and socially active and environmentally aware

    2。 Visible Achiever Segment

  • aged between 35 and 49

  • working in upmarket professional positions and earning over AU$77,000

  • seeking recognition, status and evidence of success (e.g. cars, houses, expensive and unusual holidays)

Slide 25

3. Young Optimists Segment

  • aged between 18 and 24

  • being the active, trendy, outgoing student generation

  • being trend setters, ambitious and career oriented

  • being interested in adventure based tours, always collecting new experiences, ideas and relationships

  • being often the children of the Visible Achievers or Socially Aware segments.

Slide 26

In general, some distinct characteristics of an Eco-tourist can be identified as the following

  • Age

    • largest group: around age of 20-40

    • a second large group: 55 years and older

  • Education and Income

    • more educated than other tourists, with an interest in learning about the environment

    • earning higher incomes

  • Seasonality

    • general tourists - favour definite seasons at most destinations

    • eco-tourists tend to travel all year round and are not as seasonally biased

Slide 27

  • Environmental Behaviour

    • more likely to be involved in pro-environmental behavior at home

      • recycling household waste

      • purchasing green products

    • many of them belong to conservation organizations, but are not necessarily active in them

      • having a more intellectual interest in the environment

      • rather than hands-on experience

  • Accommodation Preferences

    • More interested in specialist accommodation in a natural setting than traditional star-rated hotels

      • farmstays

      • bed and breakfasts

      • private cottages

Slide 28

Circumstances that resulted in the emergence of ecotourism:3 factors

  • SOCIETAL CHANGES:

    • media effect and shift in education => people’s social and environmental awareness (identify a current example in Hong Kong)

  • CHANGES IN TOURISTS’ INTERESTS:

    • traveling more widely => becoming more adventurous => questioning about places of visit (identify a current example in Hong Kong)

  • THE STRATEGY OF THE INDUSTRY:

    • being informative and educative is integral to the product (identify a current example in Hong Kong)

Slide 29

To what extent could abalance betweenEntertainmentandEducation be achieved in ecotourism practice?

We must remember ECOTOURISMis

  • a form of tourism

  • it is, after all, anentertainmentindustry

    So it is crucial the above question be appreciated

Slide 30

Learning objective #2

  • Understand the complexities for applying the concept of sustainability to ecotourism practice:

    Questions #2 & #3 (for your homework):

    • Under what circumstances is it appropriate to advocate a policy, respectively, of steady state or enhancement sustainability in ecotourism?

    • What are the potential costs and benefits of applying steady state and enhancement sustainability to a local community?

Please read:

Weaver, D. (2008). Ecotourism (Chapter#1). Milton, Qld. Australia: John Wiley & Sons

Slide 31

Some guidelines forSustainable Managementof Ecotourism:

1) Managing the physical stresses on the environment by taking theseissues into consideration (natural aspect)

2) Recognize the need for local communities to benefit from tourism (the social aspect)

Sustaining the well-being (both culturally and economically) of local community is the ESSENCE of the eco-tourism philosophy

  • Community participation in the development process

Slide 32

  • Question #2 Under what circumstances is it appropriate to advocate a policy, respectively, of steady state or enhancement sustainability in ecotourism?

    • Steady state

      • Maintain what is there already?

        • Any actions need to be taken?

    • Enhancement sustainability

      • Sustain what is there already?

        • Any actions need to be taken?

  • Question #3 What are the potential costs and benefits of applying steady state and enhancement sustainability to a local community?

    Please read the textbook pp. (14 - 16)

Slide 33

Learning objective #3

  • Appreciate importance of geographic knowledge for studying ecotourism

    • Geographical space as a requirement for economic activities including tourism (why???)

    • Tourism location => 2 factors

      • Spatial

        • distance

        • accessibility

        • transport costs

        • presence of markets

        • concentration of economic activities

        • etc.

      • Environmental

        • Natural – weather and climate

        • Cultural

Slide 34

  • The factor of natural environment =>

    • Climate as a resource, particularly for ecotourism

      • Characteristics

        • Is free

        • Can’t be transported or stored

        • Distribution varies in space and time; and is decisive in tourism demand and supply

        • Has extreme weather events that need associated response plans

        • Affects elements of the natural and human system

          • Physical (the case of rain and wind)

          • Physiological (the case of temperature and humidity

          • Psychological (the case of cloud cover)

          • Tourism climatology and tourist perception

        • Climate changes because of human activities

    • Climate as an attraction =>

      • Weather, climate and ecotourism tourism planning

Slide 35

Homework

  • Find out the carrying capacity set for Mai Po Nature Reserve 10 years ago

  • Find out the carrying capacity set for Mai Po Nature Reserve now

  • Discuss the implications of the difference (if there is any)


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