Integrating sources
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Integrating Sources. What are sources?. Primary Directly from the person (report) or time (letters / poetry/ books) Example: Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales Secondary Criticism about the primary source or discussion of an experiment

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Integrating Sources

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Integrating sources

Integrating Sources


What are sources

What are sources?

  • Primary

    • Directly from the person (report) or time (letters / poetry/ books)

      • Example: Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales

  • Secondary

    • Criticism about the primary source or discussion of an experiment

      • Example: Paul T. Thurston’s “Artistic Ambivalence in Chaucer’s Knight's Tale.”

  • Tertiary

    • Collections about primary and secondary sources.

      • Example: Beryl Rowland’s “Contemporary Chaucer Criticism.”

        • http://english.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/112/3.full.pdf

          NB: Some sources can be primary or secondary depending on the focus of your question/ research.


Why do we use sources

Why do we use sources?

  • Introduce and frame ideas and arguments

  • Contrast ideas or arguments

  • Provide evidence for your argument

  • Align your argument with an authority

  • Define a concept

  • Illustrate a process

  • Clarify a statement

  • Set a mood

Palmquist


Use of sources

Use of sources

  • How can I use my sources to:

    • Accomplish my purpose

    • Address the needs and interests of my audience

http://www.neubloc.com/news.asp?nid=5


What s my p urpose

What’s my purpose?

  • Paper:

    • Leading readers to the issue you are discussing or addressing

    • Responding to your prompt

  • Use of sources:

    • Strengthening your argument with evidence

Palmquist


How can i address the interests and needs of my audience

How can I address the interests and needs of my audience?

  • Analyze your assignment

  • Discover your audience and their reasons for reading your paper

  • Find what influences your readers

  • Understand the type of document you are writing

  • Know your limitations and weaknesses


Finding sources

Finding sources

  • Look on the Library of Congress site for subject terms

  • Googlescholar

    • Generally has a smoother search function than the library

    • Can put titles found into the Library database to find availability

  • Library

    • Easter egging helps

    • Research Librarians are your friend

  • Library databases

    • Can search multiple places at once


Formatting sources

Formatting sources

  • Two types:

    • Direct Quotes

    • Paraphrasing

  • Direct quotes should be integrated:

    • A “careful selection of information from your sources can allow you to present [an] argumen[t] that might be more pointed than you” would make (Palmquist 175).

  • Paraphrasing MUST be cited


Direct quote

Direct Quote

  • “an exact copy of words found in a source” Palmquist (133).

  • Use quotation marks, unless it is a block quote, and cite

  • Block quotes Page length

  • MLA

    • Uses direct quotes as supporting evidence

  • APA

    • Uses direct quotes rarely

    • Only when it cannot be said better by paraphrasing


Direct quote integration

Direct Quote Integration

  • Use partial, complete, and block quotations:

    • Partial: a single word, phrase or most of a sentence

    • Complete: one or more complete sentences

    • Block: extended quotations – MLA: 4 lines or more/ APA: 40 words

  • Modify quotes with ellipses, brackets, and “sic”:

    • Ellipses: indicates … words

    • Brackets: indicates added words [words to help fit the structure of the sentence] or to clarify meaning

    • “sic”: indicates errors in a source

  • See Palmquist page 180-181 for punctuation conventions


Examples of modification

Examples of modification

  • The writing center is open from 9 am to 8 pm and serves all TAMUCC students.

    • The writing center … serves all TAMUCC students.

  • Directly from the book: “Your careful selection of information from your sources can allow you to present arguments that might be more pointed than you might want to make on your own.” 

    • At use in our presentation: A “careful selection of information from your sources can allow you to present [an] argumen[t] that might be more pointed than you” would make (Palmquist 175).

  • In an interview with five year old Maddy, she discussed her father’s anger over her constant running in the house: “daddy was mad because I runned [sic] in the house and knocked over the table.”


Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing

  • Paraphrasing a source means taking the meaning of a passage and putting it in your own words (Palmquist 135).

  • Do not use quotation marks

  • Do cite

  • MLA

    • Uses paraphrased sources as supporting evidence

  • APA

    • Prefers paraphrasing

    • Paraphrasing allows the distribution of information in a compact and concise manner


When paraphrasing do not

When paraphrasing, do not…

  • Copy another person’s work word for word!

  • Substitute synonyms for words in the original text!

    This is considered plagiarism.


Problems when substituting words

Problems when substituting words…

  • It may be too close to the original text

  • It may reflect the author’s “creative” use of language

  • It may distort the original meaning

  • It may be grammatically incorrect


Effectively integrating sources

Effectively Integrating Sources

  • How do you create strong evidence?

  • The Quotation Sandwich

    Idea + Quotation + Explanation = Evidence

Boeck


Claim

Claim

  • Clearly state your claim – point – idea.

    Anime is part of a cultural art that has existed for centuries and adapts to cultural shifts.

  • Find a quote that supports this.

Boeck


Quote

Quote

  • Before using a quotation in your paper, you should introduce it.

  • Make a smooth transition from your own words to those of another source.

    • Jonathan Gladden discusses in his paper, Animania, the idea that “Japanese anime & manga represent a highly developed art form which surpasses western comics in their quality of artistry, social comment and adaptability to people of races, genders, and social-economic groups” (1).

  • Avoid dropped quotes in a paper by using a signal phrase

Boeck


Signal phrase

Signal Phrase

  • May Include:

    • Author’s name and a verb

    • Title of work

      Jonathan Gladden discusses in his paper, Animania, the idea that “Japanese anime & manga represent a highly developed art form which surpasses western comics in their quality of artistry, social comment and adaptability to people of races, genders, and social-economic groups” (1).

      TIP: Read your sentence aloud without quotes to ensure an integrated quote.

Boeck


Explain

Explain

  • Create a sentence that explains its significance

  • Show how it supports your claim

  • Explain how this supports the focus of your paper

    Because of its adaptability, Anime’s popularity as a cultural art has endured as a separate art form since the nineteen thirties.

Boeck


Make the sandwich

Make the Sandwich

Anime is part of a cultural art that has existed for centuries and adapts to cultural shifts. Jonathan Gladden discusses in his paper, Animania, the idea that“Japanese anime & manga represent a highly developed art form which surpasses western comics in their quality of artistry, social comment and adaptability to people of races, genders, and social-economic groups” (1).Because of its adaptability, Anime’s popularity as a cultural art has endured as a separate art form since the nineteen thirties.


Works cited

Works Cited

Boeck, Dawn. Integrating Sources. Paper. Texas A&M University – Corpus Christi, 2011. Print.

Gladden, Jonathan. Animania: Inside the World of Japanese Animation and Comic Art. Paper. Ohio State University, 1997. Web.  

Palmquist, Mike. The Bedford Researcher. 2nded. Boston, NY: Bedford/ St. Martin's, 2006. Print.


References

References

Boeck, D. (2011). Integrating sources. Informally published manuscript, Writing Center, Texas A&M University - Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, TX.

Gladden, J. (1997). Animania: inside the world of Japanese animation and comic art. Informally published manuscript, Advanced Computing Center for the Arts, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Retrieved from www.gladdengraphics.com/academics/ResearchPapers/Animania.pdf

Palmquist, M. (2006). The Bedford researcher. (2nd ed. ed.). Boston, NY: Bedford/ St. Martin's.


Integration activity

Integration Activity!

Take a source for your current paper, find a quote, and make a sandwich.


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