Theories and models for health promotion interventions
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Theories and Models for Health Promotion Interventions. Build a solid foundation for the house. Definitions.

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Theories and Models for Health Promotion Interventions

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Theories and models for health promotion interventions

Theories and Models for Health Promotion Interventions

Build a solid foundation for the house



  • Theory: A theory is a set of interrelated concepts, definitions, and propositions that presents a systematic view of events or situations by specifying relations among variables in order to explain and predict the events of the situations.

    Glanz, Lewis & Rimer, 1977, p. 21



  • Concepts: the primary elements of theory (ideas or propositions)

  • Construct: synthesized thoughts of key concepts or specific theories

  • Variables: the operational or practical form of a construct

  • Model: a subclass of theory. May utilize a number of theories to help people understand a specific problem in a particular setting



  • See page 145

Still confused

Still Confused?

  • Don’t worry about it. You aren’t alone.



  • The backbone of the processes used to plan, implement, and evaluation health promotion interventions

  • A theory-based approach provides direction and justification for program activities and serves as a basis for processes that are to be incorporated into the health promotion program

Theories and hp programs


Minnesota Heart Health Program

Theories Used

Social Learning Theory

Communication-persuasion model

Model of innovation diffusion

Community development

Problem-behavior theory

Theories and HP Programs

Theories and hp programs1


Stanford Five-City Project

Theories Used

Social Learning Theory

Theory of Reasoned Action

Communication-persuasion model

Model of innovation diffusion

Theories and HP Programs

Behavior change theories

Behavior Change Theories

Stimulus-Response (SR) Theory:

  • Classical conditioning

  • Instrumental conditioning

  • Reinforcement

  • Punishment

  • Positive reinforcement

  • Negative reinforcement

  • Positive punishment

  • Aversive stimulus

  • Negative punishment

Behavior change theories1

Behavior Change Theories

Social Cognitive Theory (SCT)

  • A.k.a. Social Learning Theory (SLT)

  • Albert Bandura

  • Learning occurs primarily through modeling and reinforcement

  • Self-efficacy

  • Efficacy expectations

  • Outcome expectations

Behavior change theories2

Behavior Change Theories

Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA)

  • Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975

  • Attitude, belief, behavioral intention, and behavior

  • Incorporates the notion that individuals will behave, in part, because of how they believe significant others would have them behave (subjective norm)

Behavior change theories3

Behavior Change Theories

Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)

  • Extension of TRA

  • Incorporates the dimension “perceived behavioral control” as a determinant of intention. Can I do this? Am I in control?

  • What would Bandura call this?

  • Self-efficacy

Behavior change theories4

Behavior Change Theories

Theory of Freeing (TF)

  • Friere (1973, 1974)

  • Empowerment

  • The task of health education should be to free people so they may make health-related decisions based upon their needs and interests

Health behavior models

Health Behavior Models

Health Belief Model (HBM)

  • Frequently used

  • Based on Lewin’s decision making model

  • Probability of behavior change (likelihood of action) is based on perceived threat of a particular disease which depends on a number of factors

  • See p. 154

The elaboration likelihood model of persuasion elm

The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion (ELM)

  • Petty, Barden & Wheeler, 2002

  • Designed to explain how persuasion messages (communications) aimed at changing attitudes were received and processed by people

  • Elaboration = the amount of effortful processing people put into receiving messages

  • See p. 160

Transtheoretical model ttm

Transtheoretical Model (TTM)

Transtheoretical Model (TTM)

  • Stages of Change

    Precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance

  • Decisional Balance

    Pros, cons of changing

  • Self-Efficacy

    Confidence to change; temptation to engage in unhealthy behaviors

  • Processes of Change

    Consciousness raising; Self-reevaluation; Self-liberation; Reinforcement; Stimulus control; etc.

Transtheoretical model ttm1

Transtheoretical Model (TTM)

Cognitive-Behavioral Model of the Relapse Process

  • For most people, relapse is a part of change

  • Relapse is a failed attempt to change or modify a particular habit pattern or adopt a new optimal health behavior

  • Lapse is a single slip or mistake

  • Relapse prevention (RP) training helps people anticipate and cope with the problem of relapse in the habit-changing process (see pp. 161-163)

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