State Fire Training Confined Space Awareness. Regulations. February 1994 CAL-OSHA enacted their final rule for confined space relations Title 8, California Code of Regulations (CCR), General Industry Safety Orders (GISO), Sections 5156, 5157, 5158
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1. Confined Space
Pump wet wells
Open topped water tanks
Enclosures with bottom access
Rail car tanksTypical Permit Required Confined Spaces
Confined space Awareness(SFD Web Site)
1) Monitors that sense four (4) gases at once are commonly used in confined space operations referred to as four (4) in one (1) monitors
Causes of engulfment incidents
Walking on unstable material that has void spaces below
Improper or lack of use of safety/retrieval lines
Overhead flow of particulate matter or liquids activated inadvertentlyEngulfment Hazards
On June 6, 1998, a 56 year-old worker died when he was engulfed by sand in a hopper at a concrete pipe manufacturing company. His job as a "material man" was to direct the flow of sand and gravel from storage bins to hoppers housed in a shed on top of the plant. Since there was only one conveyor that moved sand and gravel from storage bins to the shed, the material man had to enter the shed and manually operate a lever that controlled the flow of sand or gravel into the correct hopper. He entered the 17 foot deep hopper filled with sand, perhaps by falling, was engulfed, and suffocated.
A 23-year-old mill operator and a 20-year-old maintenance technician were killed when they were engulfed in corn in a 6,000 bushel cone bottom gravity feed bin at a feedlot. The two individuals had been "knocking down" soy bean meal in a gravity feed bin next to the corn bin prior to the incident. For some reason, after their work in the soy bean meal bin they went to the corn bin and both individuals became engulfed in cracked corn. Both of these bins were active, flowing soy bean meal and cracked corn into a "clam" approximately once every five to ten minutes. The "clam" was then emptied into feed trucks. When the corn flowed from the bin, this pulled the victims under the corn. When others at the feedlot realized the two were trapped in the corn, they cut openings in the bottom of the bin to release the corn and rescue the victims. Both individuals died from suffocation.
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