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CONFINED SPACE ENTRY TRAINING. Presented by: UM-Flint Environment,Health and Safety Department. Training Outline. What is a confined space? General overview of UM-Flint’s CSE program Evaluation/Control of Atmospheric Hazards Elimination/Control of Other Hazards Entry Procedures

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confined space entry training


Presented by:

UM-Flint Environment,Health and Safety Department

training outline
Training Outline
  • What is a confined space? General overview of UM-Flint’s CSE program
  • Evaluation/Control of Atmospheric Hazards
  • Elimination/Control of Other Hazards
  • Entry Procedures
    • (General, Hazardous & Hot Work entry permits)
  • Evacuation & Rescue
  • Discussion of CS Scenarios & related equip.
  • Working w/ Contractors
  • Video “Life & Death Series CSE”
training goal
Training Goal
  • Refresh and update employees knowledge of CSE procedures
  • Discuss roles/responsibilities
  • Familiarize new employees with the UMF confined spaces, associated hazards and entry procedures.
  • Provide employees with guidelines to:
    • Identify confined spaces
    • Evaluate confined spaces
    • Enter confined spaces in accordance with MIOSHA regulations and UM guidelines.
  • Discuss concerns or non-routine entries.
confined space entry program
Confined Space Entry Program
  • Prevent Unauthorized Entry
  • Identify Permit Space Hazards
  • Develop & Follow Safe Entry Procedures (use entry permit as guide)
  • Conclude Entry (close out permit)
  • Coordinate Entry Operations between University departments as well as with non-University agencies i.e. FFD, MPC
  • Program Evaluation & Review/Revise
section 1 what is a confined space
Section 1:What is a Confined Space?
  • A space that meets ALL THREE of the following criteria:
    • Has limited means of entry or exit.
    • Is large enough for a person to enter and perform work.
    • Is not designed for continuous human occupancy.
  • Employer must evaluate a space based on the Definition…. NOT on whether or not you may enter the space (per MIOSHA)
types of confined spaces
Types of Confined Spaces
  • Non-permit required
  • Permit required
    • General permit … c(5) or c(7) entry
    • Hazardous permit
    • Hot Work
non permit required
Non-Permit Required
  • Meets confined space definition, and
  • Has adequate ventilation, and
  • Does not contain any hazards that can cause death or harm, and
  • There is absolutely no potential for a hazardous atmosphere.
permit required
Permit Required
  • Meets confined space definition and
    • limited means of entry or exit.
    • large enough for a person to enter and work.
    • Is not designed for continuous occupancy.
  • Has inadequate ventilation, or
  • Has a hazardous health or safety condition, or
    • (i.e. engulfment; internal configuration that could trap/asphyxiate; converging wall, sloped/taper floor; entrapment; exposed electrical/mechanical parts, etc.)
  • Has a known or potential hazardous atmosphere.
confined space evaluation
Confined Space Evaluation
  • Is it a confined space?
  • Is it a permit required confined space?
  • What hazards are present? Source?
  • Can hazards be eliminated? Controlled?
  • What type of permit is required?
  • What procedures/equipment will be used to protect the entrants?
  • Use UM-f Space Evaluation form…
types of permits
Types of Permits
  • General Entry Permit
  • Hazardous Entry Permit
  • Hot Work Entry Permit
campus utility tunnels
Campus Utility Tunnels
  • UMF utility tunnels are not considered confined spaces because:
    • Ventilated and lighted
    • Designed for human occupancy
    • Not generally hazardous
  • However, caution must be taken when performing work in tunnels
    • Buddy system, radio communications/notifications, other regulations do apply… could be upgraded.
  • AA-OSEH is developing a new Tunnel Safety Program… many of AA’s tunnels are CS.
section 2 atmospheric hazards
Section 2:Atmospheric Hazards
  • How Chemicals Enter Body
  • Acute and Chronic Effects
  • Exposure Limits
  • Identifying Atmospheric Hazards
  • Vapor Density
routes of entry
Routes of Entry
  • Skin Absorption
  • Inhalation
  • Ingestion
  • Injection
health effects
Health Effects
  • Acute
    • immediate or short term effect
  • Chronic
    • delayed or long term effect
warning signs
Warning Signs
  • Dizziness/Disorientation
  • Weakness in knees/abnormal breathing
  • Blurred vision/profuse sweating
  • Chest pains/headaches
  • Loss of coordination/ringing in ears
  • Skin irritation/irregular heartbeat
  • Lethargy or excitedness
what is an atmospheric hazard
What is an Atmospheric Hazard?
  • Oxygen >23.5% or <19.5%
  • Flammables at >10% LEL
  • IDLH
  • Combustible Dusts
  • Unknown chemical spill
sources of hazardous atmospheres
Sources of Hazardous Atmospheres
  • Spaces with known hazardous chemicals/substances
  • Spaces that lack ventilation
  • Spaces that have the potential to transfer a hazardous atmosphere
  • Spaces with a work induced hazardous atmosphere
permissible exposure limits
Permissible Exposure Limits
  • OSHA
  • 8 Hour TWA
  • STEL
  • Ceiling Limit
  • Contact EHS for monitoring of contaminants not monitored for by standard meters
oxygen deficient atmosphere
Oxygen Deficient Atmosphere
  • <19.5%
  • Sources: work induced, rusting, gases that displace oxygen
  • Simple Asphyxiants: Displace oxygen (carbon dioxide, nitrogen, argon)
  • Chemical Asphyxiant: Prevent body from using oxygen (carbon monoxide)
oxygen enriched atmosphere
Oxygen Enriched Atmosphere
  • 23.0% or Greater
  • Sources: Welding, or oxygen gas lines
  • Increase fire and explosion hazard
  • Never use oxygen to ventilate space
vapors and gases
Vapors and Gases
  • Vapor: Gaseous state of material normally found as liquid or solid at normal temperature and pressure
  • Gas: Material that is found as a formless fluid at normal temperature and pressure
lel lfl and uel ufl
  • LEL: Lowest concentration can ignite
  • UEL: Highest Concentration can ignite
  • Example: Gasoline LEL 1%, UEL 8%
  • In between is explosive
  • Consideration: Atmosphere above the UEL, when ventilated may create an explosive atmosphere
lel safety factor
LEL Safety Factor
  • OSHA: 10% of LEL or Greater
  • Example: LEL for Methane is 5%
  • Meter alarm at 10% of 5% (i.e., 0.5%)
  • If exceeded (meter alarms), leave the space and Contact supervisor and EHS.
combustible dusts
Combustible Dusts
  • Metal Powders - Aluminum, Magnesium, Zinc
  • Wood Products - Dust, Paper
  • Rubber/Plastic/Spices/Food Products
  • Rule of Thumb - Obscure Vision 5 Feet or Less –high potential for combustion given the right conditions.
toxic or poisonous atmospheres
Toxic or Poisonous Atmospheres
  • Most Common:
    • Carbon Monoxide (CO)
    • Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
    • Methane (CH4)
    • Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
carbon monoxide co
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  • Colorless, odorless & tasteless
  • Product incomplete combustion
  • Causes chemical asphyxiation
  • Slightly lighter than air
hydrogen sulfide h 2 s
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
  • Rotten egg odor
  • Petroleum/Organic matter decay
  • Found in sewers or petroleum holding tanks
  • <10 PPM
methane ch 4
Methane (CH4)
  • Colorless, odorless & flammable
  • Petroleum/Organic matter decay
  • Lighter than air
  • Meter alarms – 10% of LEL
carbon dioxide co 2
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
  • Colorless, odorless & tasteless
  • Byproduct of respiration and complete combustion
  • Heavier than air
other atmospheric hazards
Other Atmospheric Hazards
  • Materials in the space
  • Work induced hazards (e.g., welding, painting, solvents)
  • Review history of space
  • Contact EHS if other contaminants are suspected
vapor density
Vapor Density
  • Heavier than Air: Sinks
  • Lighter than Air: Rises
  • Air Vapor density = 1
  • <1 Lighter, >1 Heavier
  • Most contaminants are heavier than air
  • The few that are lighter, are usually flammable and very toxic
section 3 evaluation control of atmospheric hazards
Section 3:Evaluation & Control of Atmospheric Hazards
  • Air Monitoring Equipment and Procedures
  • Ventilating, Flushing or Purging
  • PPE – only after engineer controls
air monitoring
Air Monitoring
  • Contaminants may not be detected by sight or smell
  • Two Types of Direct Reading:
    • Electronic – Bacharach 4-gas monitor
    • Detector Tubes – Drager pump
  • Always monitor for oxygen, LEL and expected toxics (CO, H2S)
bacharach sentinel 44
BACHARACH Sentinel 44
  • UM-F’s Four Gas Monitor - Sentinel 44
  • % Oxygen, % LEL, Carbon Monoxide (PPM), H2S (PPM)
  • Alarms:
    • O2 - <19.5% or > 23.0%,
    • LEL - > 10%,
    • CO - >35 ppm
    • H2S - >10 ppm
air monitoring precautions
Air Monitoring Precautions
  • Alarm Goes Off – leave the space, contact EHS and supervisor
  • Other contaminants known or suspected, contact EHS for monitoring assistance
air monitoring procedure
Air Monitoring Procedure
  • Ensure monitor has been calibrated
  • Turn monitor on and let warm up
  • Verify monitor is functioning properly
  • Zero sensors in clean ambient air-outside the CS
  • Keep sensor heads exposed
  • Test space before opening the hatch
  • Monitor for oxygen first…
air monitoring continued
Air Monitoring (continued)
  • Monitor every four feet
  • Monitor vertically & horizontally
  • Record results on permit
  • Before work, periodically during work, and after breaks
  • Continuously monitor – confidence tone or ”beep”
air monitoring limitations
Air Monitoring Limitations
  • Sensors must be calibrated and replaced periodically – Contact EHS
  • LEL sensor needs oxygen to work
  • LEL sensor is calibrated for one gas -Methane
  • Sensors can take up to 2 minutes to accurately display concentrations
  • Some gases and RF emissions interfere with sensor accuracy
flushing purging of space
Flushing/Purging of Space
  • Lock Out/Tag Out Feeds
  • Can use air, steam, water, etc.
  • Removes chemical or decomposition hazards
  • Drain or pump out
  • Ventilate with fresh air when complete
  • Natural
  • Mechanical (General or Local)
    • portable/intrinsically safe
  • Air monitoring determines adequate ventilation
general ventilating technique
General Ventilating Technique
  • Perform air monitoring
  • Extend duct into space
  • Open all access points
  • Keep duct as short/straight as possible
  • Ensure intake is at clean air source
  • Ventilate 15 minutes prior to entry
  • Continue air monitoring
local exhaust ventilation
Local Exhaust Ventilation
  • Work induced contaminants
  • Space has acceptable atmosphere prior to work
  • Place duct opening at point of generation (air is pulled out of space)
ventilating safety measures
Ventilating Safety Measures
  • Ventilate with fresh air
  • Never use pure oxygen
  • Use explosion proof equipment if needed
  • Make sure exhaust air is not re-entrained
  • Make sure supply air is reaching all areas of the space
  • Use air monitoring to determine adequate ventilation
  • Don\'t block exit with equipment
section 4 recognition control of other hazards
Section 4: Recognition & Control of Other Hazards
  • Engulfment, Entrapment, Configuration
  • Other Hazards and their Control
  • Liquid or Solid
  • Suffocation or Drowning


  • Elimination or Isolation of hazard
  • On-site remote retrieval rescue equipment such as the Miller tripod w/ harness and or wristlet/anklets)
entrapment configuration
  • Inwardly converging walls
  • Floor which slopes downward and tapers to a small cross section
  • Obstacles, blockages or small internal openings


  • On-site remote retrieval rescue equipment such as the Miller tripod w/ harness and or wristlet/anklets)
electrical mechanical hazards
Electrical & Mechanical Hazards
  • Use Lock-out/Tag-out Procedures prior to entry
  • Isolate moving parts
  • Assure equipment grounding / GFCI’s
chemical hazards
Chemical Hazards
  • Toxics, Flammables, Irritants, Sensitizers, etc.


  • Read MSDSs
  • Understand Physical/Health hazards
  • Remove/ Isolate the source, ventilation
  • Wear appropriate PPE
  • Gloves
  • Glasses/goggles/face shields
  • Coveralls or Tyvek suits
  • Safety Shoes
  • Hard hats
  • Respirators
  • Select based on hazard
  • Latex - general protection
  • Nitrile/neoprene - chemical resistant
  • Kevlar - cut/puncture resistant
  • Air Purifying Half or full mask.
  • Filters and cartridges are for specific atmospheric hazards.
  • Not for IDLH or oxygen deficient atmospheres.
  • SCBA for IDLH conditions and not permitted for UMF employees’
    • Escape packs not used for re-entry
  • Respiratory Protection Program & Medical Monitoring is required.
heat stress cold stress
Heat Stress & Cold Stress


  • Frost Bite
  • Hypothermia


  • Dehydration
  • Heat Rash
  • Heat Fatigue
  • Heat Cramps
  • Heat Exhaustion
  • Heat Stroke


  • Mechanical Ventilation
  • Fans, Heaters, Air Conditioners
  • AL: 85 dBA
  • PEL: 90 dBA
  • Communication is difficult


  • Remove or isolate the source
  • Wear Hearing Protection
  • Other means of communication
slips trips falls
Slips, Trips & Falls
  • Good housekeeping practices
  • Fall Protection
  • Tie off ladders
  • Hard hats & slip resistant soles
  • Lower/raise equipment by rope. Don\'t carry on ladders
  • Barriers around openings
power tools and lighting
Power Tools and Lighting
  • Tools are grounded & insulated
  • Insulating blankets when arc welding on metal
  • Equipment grounding/GFCI’s
  • Provide adequate lighting. Grounding & spark hazards of portable lighting
  • Tools & lighting should be explosion proof when necessary
section 5 entry procedures
Section 5: Entry Procedures
  • Employee roles
  • Proper procedures for general, hot work & hazardous entry permits
employee roles
Employee Roles
  • Attendant (spotter)
  • Authorized Employee (entrant)
  • Entry Supervisor
  • Rescue Personnel
    • DPS & Flint Fire, or
    • Contract CSE Rescue team i.e. MPC
    • IDLH conditions require On site rescue team
  • EHS – On-site for Hazardous entry
entry procedures
Entry Procedures
  • Evaluate the space/ Identify hazards
  • Pre-entry briefing
  • Inform DPS
  • Isolate/control hazards
  • Perform air monitoring
  • Complete, sign and post permit
  • Monitor entrants
  • Exit space and close out permit
  • Debriefing
  • Return completed/closed permit to EHS
pre entry briefing
Pre-Entry Briefing
  • Use the Evaluation Form and Permit to walk through the evaluation process
  • Discuss with supervisor to consider previous entries and history of the space
  • Review of conditions, controls, procedures & contingencies
  • Determine whether or not on-site rescue team is required… contact EHS.
pre entry checklist just before entry
Pre-Entry Checklist (just before entry)
  • Inform DPS & EHS
  • Atmospheric monitoring
  • Inspect and test equipment prior to use
  • Communication procedures
  • Rescue/emergency procedures
  • Review space use history
  • Verify training
  • Supervisor verify safe entry conditions, etc.
  • Sign & post permit
non permit required confined space
Non-Permit Required Confined Space
  • Meets definition of confined space, but no health or safety hazard
  • Two employees (buddy system)
  • Means of communication
  • Can be re-classified to a permit required space for work induced hazards… i.e. use of chemicals/solvents, welding, etc.
  • Examples: ceiling spaces,
general permit required confined space
General Permit Required Confined Space
  • Meets definition of a confined space and has a potential or known health or safety hazard
  • Atmospheric hazard eliminated by ventilation
  • Two Authorized Employees (One Designated as Entry Supervisor)
general entry permits
General Entry Permits
  • Pre-entry Briefing
  • Communication
  • Continuous Air Monitoring/Ventilation
  • Trained (Authorized) Employees
  • Elimination of hazards
  • PPE
  • Off-site Rescue
hot work entry permit
Hot Work Entry Permit
  • Welding, burning, cutting or torch work
  • Provisions same as in general permit
  • If contaminants cannot be controlled by ventilation & air monitoring: Retrieval System and On-site Rescue must be used
hazardous entry permit
Hazardous Entry Permit
  • Cannot eliminate atmospheric hazard
  • Provisions of General Permit Plus:
    • EHS Representative On Site,
    • On-site Rescue and Retrieval System Mandatory
section 6 evacuation rescue
Section 6:Evacuation & Rescue
  • When to Evacuate the Space
  • Rescue Procedures
when should the confined space be evacuated
When should the Confined Space be evacuated?
  • Hazardous atmosphere
    • Alarm on monitor
    • Overexposure symptoms of entrants
  • Unanticipated health or safety hazard
  • Damage to PPE or failure of controls
  • Attendant cannot perform duties
  • Permit expires
  • If Entrant Becomes Incapacitated
  • Three Types:
    • Remote (retrieval system)
    • Off-site (Contact DPS 911 & FFD)
    • On-site (MPC/ Contract on-site rescue team & DPS)
  • Under No Circumstances is Attendant/Spotter to enter the space
spotter retrieval system on site rescue team mpc
Spotter, Retrieval System, & On-site Rescue Team (MPC)
  • First call DPS on the radio.
  • If injured due to causes not related to environment/atmosphere-Wait for Fire Dept.
  • If injured due to environment or atmosphere, then use remote/on-site rescue, if possible.
spotter retrieval system off site rescue personnel
Spotter, Retrieval System & Off-Site Rescue Personnel
  • Contact DPS on radio
  • If injury due to causes not related to the environment/atmosphere-Wait for Fire Dept.
  • If injured due to environment or atmosphere - use retrieval equipment
  • If retrieval fails - Wait for Fire Dept.
  • If unsure - Wait for Fire Dept.
spotter off site rescue
Spotter & Off-Site Rescue
  • Contact DPS on by radio
  • Wait for Fire Dept.
section 7 miscellaneous
Section 7: Miscellaneous
  • Contractors
  • UMF Confined Space related documents
  • Future drills and exercises
outside contractors
Outside Contractors
  • Inform the contractor of confined spaces
  • Identify spaces they may be entering, and respective hazards
  • Must have own Confined Space Entry Program and employee training current.
  • Coordinate with other workers. Each group entering space issues a separate permit. Work activities cannot conflict.
  • EHS is available to review contractor’s program.
review umf cse documents
Review UMF CSE Documents
  • Evaluation form
  • Entry Permit
  • Contractor Notification
  • Revised List of UMF Confined Spaces
  • UMF/UMAA Confined Space program
  • MI Part 90 Confined Space Entry Regulations