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Meeting 7. Tosspon English 105. Agenda Meeting 7. 1. 3. 2. Improve Sentences. Compare/ Contrast Peer Review. Use Word Logic. Awesome!. 1. Sentence What makes a good sentence? . Chapter 6. Review quiz. http:// www.quia.com/quiz/281440.html?AP_rand=291287150. 2. Word Logic.

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Tosspon English 105

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Meeting 7

TossponEnglish 105


Agenda Meeting 7

1

3

2

Improve Sentences

Compare/Contrast Peer Review

Use

Word Logic

Awesome!


1

Sentence What makes a good sentence?

Chapter 6


Review quiz

http://www.quia.com/quiz/281440.html?AP_rand=291287150


2

Word Logic

Chpt 7


There, Their, They’re

  • There is an adverb meaning "that location." It is sometimes used with the verb to be as an idiom. It is spelled like here which means "this location."

    • I put the collar right there. (that location)

    • There are five prime numbers less than ten. (with to be)

  • Their is a possessive pronoun. It always describes a noun.

    • Note the spelling of their. It comes from the word they, so the e comes before the i.

    • Their dog has fleas. (possessive of they)

  • They're is a contraction of they are.

    • Note the spelling: The a from are is replaced by an apostrophe.

    • They're number 1! (contraction of they are)

      Ways to remember. If you see HERE it is a place! (Where, There, Here). If you see HEIR it means they own something.


To, Too, Two

  • To is a preposition which begins a prepositional phrase or an infinitive.

    • We went to a baseball game. (preposition)

    • We like to watch a good ball game. (infinitive)

  • Too is an adverb meaning "excessively" or "also." Way to remember:TOO is extra, also, excessive. It has excessive O’s

    • We ate too much. (meaning "excessively")

    • I like baseball, too. (meaning "also")

  • Two is a number. Way to remember: Words which reflect the number two are spelled with tw:twin, twice, between, tweezers, etc.

    • Six divided by three is two. (number)

    • They own two Brittany spaniels. (number)


Who’s/Whose

Whose → those

Who’s = who is

  • Who's is a contraction of who (pron.) and is (v.)

    • Who's awesome? Whose means “who owns” or “who was”, etc. It is a possessive pronoun (adj.)

    • Whose responsibility was it to bring marshmallows?


Your, You’re

  • your is a possessive adjective, indicating ownership of something

    • That is your sock.

    • Where is your potato?

  • you're is a contraction (combination) of you and are

    • Do you know what you're doing?

    • You're stupid.

  • WTR: if you own it, it is yours. If you can replace it with You Are, then it is you’re


  • Its/It’s

    • It's is a contraction for it is.

      • It's been good to know you. it has

      • It's a trap! Contraction: it is

    • Its is a possessive pronoun meaning, more or less, of it or belonging to it.

      • The cat liked its carrier.

    • WTR: A simple test

      • If you can replace it[']sin your sentence with it is orit has, then your word is it's; otherwise, your word is its.


    Quiet, Quite, Quit

    • Quiet (adj) “of little activity,” (n.) meaning “tranquility” or “silence.”(v.) “to cause to be quiet.”

      • After lunch the children enjoyed an hour of quiet play.

      • We enjoyed the quiet of the countryside.

    • Quite (adv) - “totally” or “completely.”

      • She was quite exhausted after the warm-up exercise.

    • Quit - to stop, cease, desist.

      • I quit smoking.


    Which, Witch

    • Which – options

      • Which way should we go?

    • Witch – evil, bad, or magical female

      • My sister is a witch.

        Way to remember: A witch is a *itch that you don’t want to mess with.


    Choose/chose

    • Choose is PRESENT TENSE for making a choice in the present.

      • You choose to take a Tylenol right now.

    • Chose is PAST TENSE – tells that a choice was made in the past.

      • You chose tequila last night.

        WTR: 1 O = Over, happened in the past


    Than / Then

    Then ← when ?

    Than = compare

    • Than is a conjunction used with comparisons. rhymes with pan.

      • He likes you more than me.

    • Then is an adverb that refers to time. It rhymes with pen.

      • First you take a cup of flour, and then you sift it.

        WTR: ThAn for CompArison


    Whether, Weather

    • Weather is usually a noun, can also be verb that means "to be affected by the weather” or "to get/live through”

      • How's the weather?

      • The weather is always great this time of year

      • That house is really weathered

      • I know we can weather this crisis

        Whether is a conjunction that introduces possibilities or alternatives:

      • You'll do it whether you like it or not

      • Whether you win or lose, you'll have done your best

    • Ways to remember: whether is interchangeable with "if," while weather indicates the temperature and atmospheric conditions.


    Cite/Site/Sight

    Cite = Call attention to

    Site = Scene, location

    Sight = vision

    • Cite – to quote, summon, commend or call. Citethe author in an endnote.The officer cited the drunk driver.

    • Site – location, area, computer website, or to place something in an areaYou visit a Web siteor the site of the crime.

    • Sight – the act of seeing, a view, a glimpse/ observation, to look in a direction.

      I lost my sight in an accident.


    Waist/Waste

    • Waste: (n) discarded objects, (v) to use carelessly

      • He wasted too much time.

      • The waste was toxic!

    • Waist – (n) middle portion of the body

      • This model is bending at the waist.

        Way to remember: if its on my body, it needs an i.


    We’re, Were, Where

    • We’re – contraction of we (pronoun) + are (v).

      • We’re not perfect.

    • Were – (v) past tense of are.

      • Their eyes were watching god.

    • Where (adv) is at/in what place.

      • Where is Carmen Sandiego?

        WTR – when you see HERE it is a place!


    Through / Threw

    • Throughmeans from one point to its end (adv.) or because of (prep.)

      • I went through a lot of pain.

    • Threwis the past tense of throw which means to toss or to fling (v.)

      • He threw the ball right at me!

        Way to remember: -EW = an action, a THROW.

        Btw “thru” is an abbreviation, it’s NOT to be used outside of text messaging.


    Write, Right, Rite

    • Write (v): to form letters/words, to compose

      • I will write this paper, I guess.

    • Right (adj) correct, conforming to justice(n) power or privilege, direction opposite of left.

      • What is the right answer???!

    • Rite (n): traditional (often religious) ceremony.

      • A bridal shower is a rite of passage.

        Way to remember: not left but RIGHT, Written is based on Write.


    Do/Due

    • Do – to perform, to create, to deal with, to handle

      • I will do it later.

    • Due – owed, because of

      • No one would hang out with him, due to his temper.

      • The money is due.

        WTR: If it involves $ (or means “because of”) use the UE version


    Lose / Loose

    • Lose (v) to suffer the loss of, to miss.

      • I win! You lose!

      • Don't lose your keys

      • I never lose bets

    • Loose (Adj), the opposite of tight or contained.

      • My shoes are loose.

      • I have a loose tooth.

      • There's a goose running loose in the street.

    • WTR: This confusion can easily be avoided if you pronounce the word intended aloud. If it has a voiced Z sound, then it’s “lose.” If it has a hissy S sound, then it’s “loose.” Loose rhymes with GOOSE, and both need 2 O’s


    Maybe / May be

    • Maybe, the compound word, is an adverb meaning "perhaps" or "possibly."

      • Maybe I will go out tonight.

    • May be is a verb phrase meaning "might be" or "could be."

      • I may be going out tonight.

    • If you can replace it with 2 words (“might be”) it IS two words.


    Passed/Past

    • Past: (adj, adv, noun, or prep) previously (a period of time before now) or a distance.Beyond in time, space, distance, amount

      • The team performed well in the past.

      • The police car drove past the suspect’s house.

    • Passed, is an action. The past tense is “passed“:

      • The red truck passed the blue truck.

      • The teacher was astonished that none of the students had passed the test.

      • After a brief illness, he passed away.

        Ways to Remember: however you have ”passed the time” you have never “past the time,” not even in the distant past.


    Beside/Besides

    Besides (Adv, prep) can mean “in addition to” Do you have any shirt besides the pink one.

    WTR : if it has an S it means “extra” (like a plural)

    Beside (prep, adv) in contrast, usually means “next to.” Pooh stood beside Rabbit, laughing.


    Accept/Except

    • Accept (v)– "to receive."

      • He accepted the gift. (He received it.)

    • Except (prep, v) is usually a preposition meaning "but" or "leaving out." However, except can also be a verb meaning "to leave out."

      • He liked everyone except Sabrina.

      • Way to remember – EX is like your EX that you want to LEAVE OUT!


    Excess/Access

    • Access –(n, v, adj) a way to enter.

      • This place has internet access?!

    • Excess ––(n, v, adj)too muchExcess fat in your diet is bad.

    • WTR: EX = TOO MUCH.


    Affect/Effect

    Affect – act on

    Effect – the outcome

    • Affect –(v) to influence or alter in some way. Use the verb affected when you mean influenced |rather than caused.

      • The arrow affected the aardvark’s rear end.

    • Effect – (n) the result of being affected. Use effect whenever any of these words precede it: a, an, any, the, take, into, no. (v.) Bring about, cause.

      • The effects of the rain have been local flooding.

    • You use Effect after The, on, any, into, or no. ThE Effect.


    Patience/ Patients

    Please have some patience: I will be able to help you after I am done seeing these other patients.

    Patients = people

    Patience = ability to wait!


    Words in common use that aren’t words

    Alot

    Alright

    Irregardless

    Its’


    “[Y]ou can think of your draft as a puzzle; to solve it, you have to find and eliminate the superfluities that obscure your meaning. The object is to delete as many words as possible without sacrificing substance or nuance.”

    -Claire KehrwaldCook

    EliminatingWordiness


    Eliminating Wordiness

    • Eliminate wordiness in the editing stage of the writing process.

    • With practice you will automatically eliminate wordiness as you draft your papers.


    Avoid “Be” Verbs

    • am

    • are

    • is

    • was

    • were

    • being

    • been

      “Be” verbs are considered actionless verbs and should be changed to active verbs when appropriate.


    Avoid “Be” Verbs

    The boring textbook was being read by the students.

    change to

    The students read the boring textbook .


    Avoid “Be” Verbs

    It is better to become a nurse instead of a teacher.

    change to

    Nursing pays better than teaching does.


    WARNING!!!

    Sometimes you should use “be” verbs.

    • I am 21 years old.

      Or if the agent—the one performing the action—is unknown, you may use the passive voice.

    • The walls had been defaced by graffiti.


    Active vs. Passive Verbs

    In sentences written in the active voice, the subject performs the action expressed by the verb.

    • Roseannewrotethe paper.


    Active vs. Passive Verbs

    In academic writing (with the exception of scientific writing) active sentences are preferred over passive ones.


    Active vs. Passive Verbs

    In sentences written in the passive voice, the subject receives the action expressed by the verb.

    • The paperwas written by Roseanne.


    Active vs. Passive

    Passive: The Old Man and the Seawas written by Hemingway.

    change to

    Active: Hemingway wroteThe Old Man and the Sea.


    Active vs. Passive

    Passive: Itis believed by some critics that Psycho is Hitchcock’s greatest film.

    change to

    Active: Some critics believe that Psycho is Hitchcock’s greatest film.


    WARNING!

    At times, it may be appropriate to write in the passive voice. The passive voice is preferred in scientific papers.

    • Experiments have been conducted to test the safety of generic pharmaceuticals.

      English and Humanities papers, however, are written in the active voice.

    • Dr. Harkerconducted experiments to test the safety of generic pharmaceuticals.


    Condense Phrases into Single Words

    The employee with ambition got the promotion.

    change to

    The ambitious employee got the promotion.


    Condense Phrases into Single Words

    Rob decided to retake the class at a later date in time.

    change to

    Rob decided to retake the classlater.


    the reason for

    for the reason that

    due to the fact that

    in light of the fact that

    considering the fact that

    this is why

    = because, since, why

    All these phrases can be condensed into one word.


    on the occasion of

    in a situation in which

    under circumstances in which

    = when

    All these phrases can be condensed into one word.


    it is crucial that

    it is necessary that

    there is a need for

    it is important that

    cannot be avoided

    = must, should

    All these phrases can be condensed into one word.


    it is possible that

    there is a chance that

    it could happen that

    the possibility exists for

    = may, might, could

    All these phrases can be condensed into one word.


    end result

    past experience

    share in common

    small in size

    = end

    = past

    = share

    = small

    Avoid Repetitive Wording


    made a discovery

    made an attempt

    made an accusation

    made an appearance

    made a decision

    = discovered

    = attempted

    = accused

    = appeared

    = decided

    Avoid Repetitive Wording


    I thought in my head

    I thought to myself

    In my mind, I think

    In my opinion, I think

    = I thought

    = I think

    Avoid Repetitive Wording


    Avoid overusing expletives at the …………beginning of sentences

    Wordy: It is the governor who signs or vetoes bills. (9 words)

    Concise: The governor signs or vetoes bills. (6 words)

    Wordy: There are four rules that should be observed: ... (8 words)

    Concise: Four rules should be observed:... (5 words)

    Wordy: There was a big explosion, which shook the windows, and people ran into the street. (15 words)

    Concise: A big explosion shook the windows, and people ran into the street. (12 words)

    form

    it + be-verb

    or

    there + be-verb


    Review

    • Avoid “be” verbs:

      am, are, is, was, were, being, been.

    • Use active rather than passive verbs.

    • Condense phrases into single words.

    • Omit repetitive wording.


    Paramedic Method – Guide to Writing Concisely

    • Circle the prepositions (of, in, about, for, onto, into)

    • Draw a box around the "is" verb forms

    • Ask, "Where's the action?"

    • Change the "action" into a simple verb

    • Move the doer into the subject(Who is kicking whom?)

    • Eliminate any unnecessary slow wind-ups

    • Eliminate any redundancies.


    Paramedic Method Practice

    5. Move “doer” to the subject

    • 6. Eliminate any unnecessary slow wind-ups

    • 7. Eliminate any redundancies.

    4. Begin rewrite, using the action as your main verb

    2. Draw a box around the “is” or “be” verb

    3. Ask “where is the action.”

    1. Circle the prepositions

    (list on pg 545)

    Rewrite: The point I wish to make is that the employees working at this company need ________________.

    Rewrite: Employees at Smith & Wesson need a better money manager.

    Rewrite: The point I wish to make is that the employees working at this company need need ____________________:

    • The point I wish to make is that the employees working at this company are in need of a much better manager of their money.


    Paramedic Method Practice

    • 2. In recent years, engineers at Sandia Labs have participated in the Search and Rescue operations. (Original word count: 24. New word count: 16).

    • 2. After reviewing the results of your research, and within the context of the study, we find evidence supporting significant changes in our operating procedures. (Original word count: 36. New word count: 25).

    • It is widely known that the engineers at Sandia Labs have become active participants in the Search and Rescue operations in most years.

    • After reviewing the results of your previous research, and in light of the relevant information found within the context of the study, there is ample evidence for making important, significant changes to our operating procedures.


    Compare/contrast

    Peer Revision

    Due 09/12, but

    if you email it by 6am on 09/05,

    earn an extra 10 points towards your final grade!


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