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Class Starter. Look at your Unit I Plan Using a highlighter, identify the target(s) or “I can” statements that we cover. “I can” statements will be your test!. “The State” What are the four characteristics of a state?. Nations, countries, and states all refer to the same thing!

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Class starter

Class Starter

  • Look at your Unit I Plan

    • Using a highlighter, identify the target(s) or “I can” statements that we cover.

    • “I can” statements will be your test!

The state what are the four characteristics of a state

“The State”What are the four characteristics of a state?

  • Nations, countries, and states all refer to the same thing!

  • In order to be a “state”, you must have four things:

    • Territory

    • Population

    • Sovereignty (ability to make own laws)

    • Government

What are the four theories of the origin of the state

What are the four theories of the Origin of the State?

  • Major Political Ideas (Origin of the State)

  • Force Theory: 1 person/group forces power and submission of other people

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  • Evolutionary Theory: State developed naturally out of the “Family.”

    • Head of Family  Head of Government

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  • Divine Right Theory: Ordained by God

    • God gave them the right to rule

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  • Social Contract Theory: State exists to serve the will of the people

    • People are the source of power – free to give or withhold power

Traditional forms of government

Traditional Forms of Government

  • Feudalism: People are bound to a King (loyal) and in return King provides protection

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  • Absolute Monarchy: King/Queen has total control of military and government

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  • Authoritarianism: unlimited amount of power, no restraints on power of government

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  • Despotism: absolute power/tyrannical rule (tyrant)

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  • Liberal Democracy:Protects individual rights; consent of the governed

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  • Totalitarianism: controls all facets of life



  • Of the people, for the people (People are source of power)

  • Equal rights (protection of rights)

  • Representative government



  • Not responsible for policies

  • Autocracy/Oligarchy

  • Authoritarian – absolute power

  • One leader (Despot)

  • Governs without consent of the people



  • Centralized government (one unit)

  • Limited local government

  • One legislature (created by constitution)



  • Division of powers

  • Central & Local Governments (National, State, and Local Government)

  • Each have own set of powers

  • Separation of Powers (3 branches)



  • Limited powers – only handles matters that member states assign to it

  • Central organization – alliance of individual states

  • No power to make laws that apply to individual states

  • Come together for a common cause



  • Two branches are equal and separate

  • Executive Branch led by President

  • Executive & Legislative branches are popularly elected



  • Executive and Legislative branch are combined

  • Executive must answer to Parliament (Legislature)

  • Executive (Prime Minister) is elected by Parliament (Legislature)

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Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, Wonder Woman, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, James Madison

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  • English Colonists brought ordered, limited, and representative government

    • Ordered: Justice of the Peace, Sheriff, Counties, etc.

    • Limited: Restricted power and individual rights

    • Representative: Government serves the will of the people

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  • Influential Documents

    • Magna Carta (1215):granted Englishmen certain rights (trial by jury, protection of property, etc.)

      • Power of the monarchy was not absolute

    • The Petition of Right (1628):limited kings power

    • The English Bill of Rights (1689): written to prevent abuses by the King/Queen (right to a fair trial, no excessive bail, no cruel and unusual punishment)

John locke

John Locke

  • Natural Rights: rights inherent in human beings (life, liberty & property)

  • Consent of the Governed: government gets its authority from the people

  • Limited Government: restrictions should be placed on the government to protect the natural rights of the people

Comparisons natural rights

Comparisons – Natural Rights

Thomas Jefferson – Declaration of Independence

John Locke

“The state of nature has a law to govern it”

“Life, Liberty and property”

“Laws of Nature and Nature’s God”

“Life, Liberty and the pursuit of happiness”

2 4 creating a constitution

2.4 – Creating a Constitution

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  • Need for a Stronger Government

  • Philadelphia Convention, May, 1787

  • Delegates agreed to create a new government

  • 55/74 delegates attended, 12/13 States attended

  • Framers (all had distinguished backgrounds and most had education)

  • Independence Hall – Sworn to Secrecy – Extremely HOT!

Virginia plan

Virginia Plan

  • 3 Branches (Legislative, Executive, & Judicial)

    • Legislative: Bicameral, decided by population & monetary contributions, House – popular election, Senate – House elected

New jersey plan

New Jersey Plan

  • 3 Branches (Legislative, Executive, & Judicial)

    • Legislative: Unicameral, Each state has equal representation

How should the states be represented in congress

How should the States be represented in Congress?

  • Connecticut Compromise

    • Bicameral Legislature: House – Population, Senate – equal representation

  • Sources of the Constitution

    • British tradition, State Governments, and John Locke’s Two Treatises of Government

  • Date finished september 17 1787

    Date Finished: September 17, 1787

    • Federalists vs.

      • Favored ratification

      • Madison & Hamilton

      • Federalist Papers


    • Opposed ratification

    • Jefferson

    • Believed National Government was too powerful

    • Wanted Bill of Rights

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    • September 13, 1788: 11/13 States ratified the Constitution

    • New York City – Capital, Congress located on Wall Street

    • April 30, 1789: George Washington took the oath of office

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