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Class Starter. Look at the different substances and write down which substances you think are composed of elements and which are composed of compounds. . Objectives. What makes up matter? Why do atoms form bonds? What are some important interactions between substances in living things?.

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Class starter

Class Starter

Look at the different substances and write down which substances you think are composed of elements and which are composed of compounds.


Objectives

Objectives

  • What makes up matter?

  • Why do atoms form bonds?

  • What are some important interactions between substances in living things?


Class starter1

Class Starter

All of the materials around you are made up of

matter. You are made up of matter, as are the

chair you sit on and the air you breathe.

1. Give an example of solid matter.

2. Give an example of liquid matter.

3. Give an example of gaseous matter.

4. Is all matter visible?

5. Does all matter take up space?


Class starter2

Class Starter

Identify the picture:

Identify the following and their charge:

Red circles:

Charge:

Blue circles:

Charge:

White circles:Charge:


Section 3 1 matter and substances

Section 3.1: Matter and Substances


Atoms

Atoms

  • Every living and nonliving thing is made of matter.

    • Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.

  • All matter is made of very small particles called atoms.

  • An atom is the smallest unit of matter that cannot be broken down by chemical means.

  • An atom has a positively charged core surrounded by a negatively charged region.


Atoms1

Atoms

  • The nucleus of an atom is made up of positively charged protons and uncharged neutrons.

  • Negatively charged electrons have very little mass and move around the nucleus in a large region called the electron cloud.


Atoms2

Atoms

Elements

  • a substance made up of atoms that have the same number of protons.

  • For example, each atom of the element carbon has six protons.

  • Isotopes

    • Atoms of an element may have different numbers of neutrons.


Chemical bonds

Chemical Bonds

  • The electron cloud of an atom may have levels.

  • Electrons in the outermost level, or shell, are called valence electrons.

  • Atoms tend to combine with each other such that eight electrons will be in the valence shell.

  • When atoms combine, a force called a chemical bond holds them together.


Chemical bonds1

Chemical Bonds

  • Chemical bonds form between groups of atoms because most atoms become stable when they have eight electrons in the valence shell.

  • When atoms of different elements combine, a compound forms.

  • A compound is a substance made of the bonded atoms of two or more elements.


Chemical bonds2

Chemical Bonds

Covalent Bonding

  • One way that atoms bond is by sharing valence electrons.

  • A molecule is a group of atoms held together by covalent bonds.

  • A water molecule, H2O, forms when an oxygen atom forms covalent bonds with two hydrogen atoms.


Chemical bonds3

Chemical Bonds

Ionic Bonding

  • Atoms can achieve a stable valence level by losing or gaining electrons, resulting in a positive or negative charge.

    ion

  • an atom or group of atoms that has an electric charge because it has gained or lost electrons.

  • The attractive force between oppositely charged ions is an ionic bond.


Polarity

Polarity

  • In some covalent bonds, the shared electrons are attracted more strongly to one atom than to the other.

  • As a result, one end of the molecule has a partial negative charge, while the opposite end has a partial positive charge.

  • Molecules with partial charges on opposite ends are said to be polar.


Polarity1

Polarity

Solubility

  • The partially charged ends of polar molecules attract opposite charges.

  • Because of this behavior, polar molecules can dissolve other polar molecules and ionic compounds. For example, water can dissolve sugar and salt.

  • Nonpolar substances, such as oil, grease, and wax, do not dissolve well in water.


Polarity2

Polarity

Hydrogen Bonds

  • When bonded to an oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine atom, a hydrogen atom has a partial charge nearly as great as a proton’s charge.

  • It attracts the negative pole of other nearby molecules. This attraction, called a hydrogen bond,is stronger than attractions between other molecules, but not as strong as covalent bonds.

  • Hydrogen bonding plays an important role in many of the molecules that make up living things.


Hydrogen bonding

Hydrogen Bonding


Summary

Summary

  • All matter is made up of atoms. An atom has a positively charged nucleus surrounded by a negatively charged electron cloud.

  • Chemical bonds form between groups of atoms because most atoms became stable when they have eight electrons in the valence shell.

  • Polar attractions and hydrogen bonds are forces that play an important role in many of the molecules that make up living things.


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