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CHAPTER 41 ANIMAL NUTRITION

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CHAPTER 41 ANIMAL NUTRITION. LEPTIN = apetite suppressor (hormone produced by fat cells). The four main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination. Why Eat?. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 -> 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + Energy (ATP + heat). ATP (Cell Respiration).

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CHAPTER 41 ANIMAL NUTRITION

LEPTIN = apetite suppressor (hormone produced by fat cells)

slide2

The four main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination

why eat
Why Eat?

C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (ATP + heat)

ATP (Cell Respiration)

  • FUEL
  • BIOSYNTHESIS
  • ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS

Organic Macromolecules

why eat1

Everything you eat gets DIGESTED into glucose, amino acids, and glycerol + fatty acids

  • These 3 digestion products enter cell respiration (glycolysis and Kreb’s cycle)
  • Products of cell respiration – CO2, NH3, H2O, ATP
  • These end products can be used for cellular work (movement), generating heat, and BIOSYNTHESIS
  • Excess gets converted to GLYCOGEN or FAT!

CO2, other simple compounds

Why Eat?

ATP

  • FUEL
  • BIOSYNTHESIS
  • ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS

Organic Macromolecules

why eat2

Carbon Skeletons, and other simple products of cell respiration

Why Eat?

ATP

  • FUEL
  • BIOSYNTHESIS
  • ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS

BIOSYNTHESIS = ANABOLIC PATHWAY

Biosynthesis = Making of New Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats, Nucleic Acids needed by the body using the energy and raw material derived from food

how much energy do you get from food
How much energy do you get from food?
  • Carbohydrates – 4 kcal/gm
  • Proteins – 4 kcal/gm
  • Fats – 9 kcal/gm
  • Calorie = heat required to raise the temperature of water by 10c
  • Kcal = 1000cal
  • Cell Respiration = process that “burns” food
  • Carbs = quick energy release
  • Fats, proteins = slow to release energy
what happens to excess carbs
What happens to excess carbs?
  • Gets stored as glycogen in liver and muscle
  • Too much carb? -Gets converted into fat!!!!
  • Glycogen can be released quickly during exercise
  • Disadvantge – less energy (4 kcal/gm)
  • Fats – more energy (9kcal/gm), takes time to release
how is glucose regulated
How is glucose regulated?
  • Insulin (produced by the Islets of Langerhans - in pancreas) = decreases blood sugar by ?
  • Glucagon (pancreas) = increases blood sugar by ?
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Animals require 20 amino acids to make proteins.
  • Essential amino acids must be obtained from food in prefabricated form. (eight)

Protein Deficiency - Kwashiorkar

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Essential fatty acids.
    • Certain unsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acids required by humans.
    • Deficiencies are rare.

Mahatma Gandhi once said, "Where ever flaxseeds become a regular food item among the people, there will be better health".

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Minerals are simple inorganic nutrients, usually required in small amounts - from less than 1 mg to about 2,500 mg per day.
human digestive system
Human Digestive System
  • Alimentary canal + accessory glands that secrete digestive juices into the canal through ducts.
    • Peristalsis: rhythmic waves- push food along.
    • Sphincters: muscular ringlike valves, regulate the passage of food
    • Accessory glands - salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver, and the gallbladder.
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When does the lunch you had today complete its passage through your digestive system?

• Mouth: Seconds • Esophagus: Seconds • Stomach: 2-6 hours • Small Intestine: 5-6 hrs.• Large Intestine: 12- 24 Hours

TOTAL = 19 – 36 hrs!!

the journey begins
The journey begins ……
  • Physical: chewing -Increases surface area of food
  • Saliva - Moistens + Kills bacteria + Buffer
  • Chemical digestion: Enzyme
  • Salivary Amylase – Acts on “AMYLOSE” - long straings of glucose found in starch/glycogen
  • (starch + glycogen) -> (smaller polysaccharides + maltose)
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Pharynx (throat) - opens to esophagus and the trachea (windpipe).
    • Epiglottis - cartilaginous flap prevents food going into the windpipe
the stomach
The stomach
  • Muscular Organ – peristalisis -chyme - mixture of gastric juice+food
  • Gastric juice - glands
  • Parietal cells - HCl – pH 2!! -kills bacteria; converts pepsinogen -> pepsin (inactive)->(active)
  • Chief cells - Pepsin – action = proteins -> polypeptides + amino acids
  • Mucous cells - Mucous prevents eating away of stomach lining
small intestine is the major organ of digestion and absorption
Small intestine is the major organ of digestion and absorption
  • 6 m long
  • First section – duodenum
  • LOTS OF ENZYMES FROM ACCESSORY GLANDS
  • Pancreas makes – 1)pancreatic amylase - acts on polysachcharides -> tri, di saccharides; 2)bicarbonate - changes pH to make it basic so enzymes can act on the food; 3)trypsin, chymotrypsin - act on polypeptides ->tri & dipeptides , 4)lipase - acts on fats -> fatty acid and glycerol, 5)nucleases act on DNA and RNA -> nucleotides
  • Liver makes bile; gall bladder – stores bile; bile emulsifies fats
  • Lining of intestine – other enzymes (intestinal juice); convert to monomers
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Fig. 41.18

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Jejunum, ileum – sections of small intestine – absorption of nutrients into lymph/blood - see notes in powerpoint slide for details

Active transport –glucose, amino acid, vitamins

Passive transport - fructose

hormones help regulate digestion
Hormones help regulate digestion
  • Hormones released by wall of the stomach and duodenum
  • Ensure that digestive secretions are present only when needed.
    • Stomach wall - hormone gastrin (stimulates gastric juice)
    • Duodenum – hormone Secritin (pancrease releases bicarbonate)
    • Duodenum – hormone Cholecystokinin (CCK)- gallbladder releases bile
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(1)

Fig. 41.22

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