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CHAPTER 41 ANIMAL NUTRITION. LEPTIN = apetite suppressor (hormone produced by fat cells). The four main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination. Why Eat?. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 -> 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + Energy (ATP + heat). ATP (Cell Respiration).

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CHAPTER 41 ANIMAL NUTRITION

LEPTIN = apetite suppressor (hormone produced by fat cells)


The four main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination


Why eat
Why Eat? digestion, absorption, and elimination

C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (ATP + heat)

ATP (Cell Respiration)

  • FUEL

  • BIOSYNTHESIS

  • ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS

Organic Macromolecules


Why eat1

  • Everything you eat gets DIGESTED into glucose, amino acids, and glycerol + fatty acids

  • These 3 digestion products enter cell respiration (glycolysis and Kreb’s cycle)

  • Products of cell respiration – CO2, NH3, H2O, ATP

  • These end products can be used for cellular work (movement), generating heat, and BIOSYNTHESIS

  • Excess gets converted to GLYCOGEN or FAT!

CO2, other simple compounds

Why Eat?

ATP

  • FUEL

  • BIOSYNTHESIS

  • ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS

Organic Macromolecules


Why eat2

Carbon Skeletons, and other simple products of cell respiration

Why Eat?

ATP

  • FUEL

  • BIOSYNTHESIS

  • ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS

BIOSYNTHESIS = ANABOLIC PATHWAY

Biosynthesis = Making of New Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats, Nucleic Acids needed by the body using the energy and raw material derived from food


How much energy do you get from food
How much energy do you get from food? respiration

  • Carbohydrates – 4 kcal/gm

  • Proteins – 4 kcal/gm

  • Fats – 9 kcal/gm

  • Calorie = heat required to raise the temperature of water by 10c

  • Kcal = 1000cal

  • Cell Respiration = process that “burns” food

  • Carbs = quick energy release

  • Fats, proteins = slow to release energy


What happens to excess carbs
What happens to excess carbs? respiration

  • Gets stored as glycogen in liver and muscle

  • Too much carb? -Gets converted into fat!!!!

  • Glycogen can be released quickly during exercise

  • Disadvantge – less energy (4 kcal/gm)

  • Fats – more energy (9kcal/gm), takes time to release


How is glucose regulated
How is glucose regulated? respiration

  • Insulin (produced by the Islets of Langerhans - in pancreas) = decreases blood sugar by ?

  • Glucagon (pancreas) = increases blood sugar by ?


Protein Deficiency - Kwashiorkar


  • Essential fatty acids respiration.

    • Certain unsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acids required by humans.

    • Deficiencies are rare.

Mahatma Gandhi once said, "Where ever flaxseeds become a regular food item among the people, there will be better health".


  • Vitamins respiration -organic molecules required in the diet in very small quantities (upto 100 mg)


  • Minerals respiration are simple inorganic nutrients, usually required in small amounts - from less than 1 mg to about 2,500 mg per day.


Human digestive system
Human Digestive System respiration

  • Alimentary canal + accessory glands that secrete digestive juices into the canal through ducts.

    • Peristalsis: rhythmic waves- push food along.

    • Sphincters: muscular ringlike valves, regulate the passage of food

    • Accessory glands - salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver, and the gallbladder.


• Mouth: Seconds • Esophagus: Seconds • Stomach: 2-6 hours • Small Intestine: 5-6 hrs.• Large Intestine: 12- 24 Hours

TOTAL = 19 – 36 hrs!!


Fig. 41.13 through your digestive system?


The journey begins
The journey begins …… through your digestive system?

  • Physical: chewing -Increases surface area of food

  • Saliva - Moistens + Kills bacteria + Buffer

  • Chemical digestion: Enzyme

  • Salivary Amylase – Acts on “AMYLOSE” - long straings of glucose found in starch/glycogen

  • (starch + glycogen) -> (smaller polysaccharides + maltose)


  • Pharynx through your digestive system? (throat) - opens to esophagus and the trachea (windpipe).

    • Epiglottis - cartilaginous flap prevents food going into the windpipe


Epiglottitis through your digestive system?


Fig. 41.14 through your digestive system?


The stomach
The stomach through your digestive system?

  • Muscular Organ – peristalisis -chyme - mixture of gastric juice+food

  • Gastric juice - glands

  • Parietal cells - HCl – pH 2!! -kills bacteria; converts pepsinogen -> pepsin (inactive)->(active)

  • Chief cells - Pepsin – action = proteins -> polypeptides + amino acids

  • Mucous cells - Mucous prevents eating away of stomach lining


Pyloric Sphincter-prevents back flow of food! through your digestive system?


Small intestine is the major organ of digestion and absorption
Small intestine is the major organ of digestion and absorption

  • 6 m long

  • First section – duodenum

  • LOTS OF ENZYMES FROM ACCESSORY GLANDS

  • Pancreas makes – 1)pancreatic amylase - acts on polysachcharides -> tri, di saccharides; 2)bicarbonate - changes pH to make it basic so enzymes can act on the food; 3)trypsin, chymotrypsin - act on polypeptides ->tri & dipeptides , 4)lipase - acts on fats -> fatty acid and glycerol, 5)nucleases act on DNA and RNA -> nucleotides

  • Liver makes bile; gall bladder – stores bile; bile emulsifies fats

  • Lining of intestine – other enzymes (intestinal juice); convert to monomers


  • . absorption

Fig. 41.18


Active transport –glucose, amino acid, vitamins

Passive transport - fructose


Hormones help regulate digestion
Hormones help regulate digestion absorption of nutrients into lymph/blood - see notes in powerpoint slide for details

  • Hormones released by wall of the stomach and duodenum

  • Ensure that digestive secretions are present only when needed.

    • Stomach wall - hormone gastrin (stimulates gastric juice)

    • Duodenum – hormone Secritin (pancrease releases bicarbonate)

    • Duodenum – hormone Cholecystokinin (CCK)- gallbladder releases bile


Reclaiming water is a major function of the large intestine
Reclaiming water is a major function of the large intestine absorption of nutrients into lymph/blood - see notes in powerpoint slide for details

  • Cecum- very mall in humans - appendix


Fig. 41.12 absorption of nutrients into lymph/blood - see notes in powerpoint slide for details



(1) associated with diet

Fig. 41.22


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