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CHAPTER 41 ANIMAL NUTRITION. LEPTIN = apetite suppressor (hormone produced by fat cells). The four main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination. Why Eat?. C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 -> 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + Energy (ATP + heat). ATP (Cell Respiration).

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CHAPTER 41 ANIMAL NUTRITION

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Chapter 41 animal nutrition

CHAPTER 41 ANIMAL NUTRITION

LEPTIN = apetite suppressor (hormone produced by fat cells)


Chapter 41 animal nutrition

The four main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination


Why eat

Why Eat?

C6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (ATP + heat)

ATP (Cell Respiration)

  • FUEL

  • BIOSYNTHESIS

  • ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS

Organic Macromolecules


Why eat1

  • Everything you eat gets DIGESTED into glucose, amino acids, and glycerol + fatty acids

  • These 3 digestion products enter cell respiration (glycolysis and Kreb’s cycle)

  • Products of cell respiration – CO2, NH3, H2O, ATP

  • These end products can be used for cellular work (movement), generating heat, and BIOSYNTHESIS

  • Excess gets converted to GLYCOGEN or FAT!

CO2, other simple compounds

Why Eat?

ATP

  • FUEL

  • BIOSYNTHESIS

  • ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS

Organic Macromolecules


Why eat2

Carbon Skeletons, and other simple products of cell respiration

Why Eat?

ATP

  • FUEL

  • BIOSYNTHESIS

  • ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS

BIOSYNTHESIS = ANABOLIC PATHWAY

Biosynthesis = Making of New Proteins, Carbohydrates, Fats, Nucleic Acids needed by the body using the energy and raw material derived from food


How much energy do you get from food

How much energy do you get from food?

  • Carbohydrates – 4 kcal/gm

  • Proteins – 4 kcal/gm

  • Fats – 9 kcal/gm

  • Calorie = heat required to raise the temperature of water by 10c

  • Kcal = 1000cal

  • Cell Respiration = process that “burns” food

  • Carbs = quick energy release

  • Fats, proteins = slow to release energy


What happens to excess carbs

What happens to excess carbs?

  • Gets stored as glycogen in liver and muscle

  • Too much carb? -Gets converted into fat!!!!

  • Glycogen can be released quickly during exercise

  • Disadvantge – less energy (4 kcal/gm)

  • Fats – more energy (9kcal/gm), takes time to release


How is glucose regulated

How is glucose regulated?

  • Insulin (produced by the Islets of Langerhans - in pancreas) = decreases blood sugar by ?

  • Glucagon (pancreas) = increases blood sugar by ?


Chapter 41 animal nutrition

  • Animals require 20 amino acids to make proteins.

  • Essential amino acids must be obtained from food in prefabricated form. (eight)

Protein Deficiency - Kwashiorkar


Chapter 41 animal nutrition

  • Essential fatty acids.

    • Certain unsaturated fatty acids, including linoleic acids required by humans.

    • Deficiencies are rare.

Mahatma Gandhi once said, "Where ever flaxseeds become a regular food item among the people, there will be better health".


Chapter 41 animal nutrition

  • Vitamins -organic molecules required in the diet in very small quantities (upto 100 mg)


Chapter 41 animal nutrition

  • Minerals are simple inorganic nutrients, usually required in small amounts - from less than 1 mg to about 2,500 mg per day.


Human digestive system

Human Digestive System

  • Alimentary canal + accessory glands that secrete digestive juices into the canal through ducts.

    • Peristalsis: rhythmic waves- push food along.

    • Sphincters: muscular ringlike valves, regulate the passage of food

    • Accessory glands - salivary glands, the pancreas, the liver, and the gallbladder.


Chapter 41 animal nutrition

  • When does the lunch you had today complete its passage through your digestive system?

• Mouth: Seconds • Esophagus: Seconds • Stomach: 2-6 hours • Small Intestine: 5-6 hrs.• Large Intestine: 12- 24 Hours

TOTAL = 19 – 36 hrs!!


Chapter 41 animal nutrition

Fig. 41.13


The journey begins

The journey begins ……

  • Physical: chewing -Increases surface area of food

  • Saliva - Moistens + Kills bacteria + Buffer

  • Chemical digestion: Enzyme

  • Salivary Amylase – Acts on “AMYLOSE” - long straings of glucose found in starch/glycogen

  • (starch + glycogen) -> (smaller polysaccharides + maltose)


Chapter 41 animal nutrition

  • Pharynx (throat) - opens to esophagus and the trachea (windpipe).

    • Epiglottis - cartilaginous flap prevents food going into the windpipe


Chapter 41 animal nutrition

Epiglottitis


Chapter 41 animal nutrition

Fig. 41.14


The stomach

The stomach

  • Muscular Organ – peristalisis -chyme - mixture of gastric juice+food

  • Gastric juice - glands

  • Parietal cells - HCl – pH 2!! -kills bacteria; converts pepsinogen -> pepsin (inactive)->(active)

  • Chief cells - Pepsin – action = proteins -> polypeptides + amino acids

  • Mucous cells - Mucous prevents eating away of stomach lining


Chapter 41 animal nutrition

Pyloric Sphincter-prevents back flow of food!


Small intestine is the major organ of digestion and absorption

Small intestine is the major organ of digestion and absorption

  • 6 m long

  • First section – duodenum

  • LOTS OF ENZYMES FROM ACCESSORY GLANDS

  • Pancreas makes – 1)pancreatic amylase - acts on polysachcharides -> tri, di saccharides; 2)bicarbonate - changes pH to make it basic so enzymes can act on the food; 3)trypsin, chymotrypsin - act on polypeptides ->tri & dipeptides , 4)lipase - acts on fats -> fatty acid and glycerol, 5)nucleases act on DNA and RNA -> nucleotides

  • Liver makes bile; gall bladder – stores bile; bile emulsifies fats

  • Lining of intestine – other enzymes (intestinal juice); convert to monomers


Chapter 41 animal nutrition

  • .

Fig. 41.18


Chapter 41 animal nutrition

  • Jejunum, ileum – sections of small intestine – absorption of nutrients into lymph/blood - see notes in powerpoint slide for details

Active transport –glucose, amino acid, vitamins

Passive transport - fructose


Hormones help regulate digestion

Hormones help regulate digestion

  • Hormones released by wall of the stomach and duodenum

  • Ensure that digestive secretions are present only when needed.

    • Stomach wall - hormone gastrin (stimulates gastric juice)

    • Duodenum – hormone Secritin (pancrease releases bicarbonate)

    • Duodenum – hormone Cholecystokinin (CCK)- gallbladder releases bile


Reclaiming water is a major function of the large intestine

Reclaiming water is a major function of the large intestine

  • Cecum- very mall in humans - appendix


Chapter 41 animal nutrition

Fig. 41.12


Structural adaptations of digestive systems are often associated with diet

Structural adaptations of digestive systems are often associated with diet


Chapter 41 animal nutrition

(1)

Fig. 41.22


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