The dynamic land ecosystem model dlem and its applications in north america
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the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) and Its Applications in north America. Ming-Liang Liu ( [email protected] ) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, WSU, Pullman, WA Prior Institute: International Center for Climate and Global Change Research

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the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) and Its Applications in north America

Ming-Liang Liu ([email protected])

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, WSU, Pullman, WA

Prior Institute:

International Center for Climate and Global Change Research

Ecosystem Dynamics and Global Ecology Laboratory

Auburn University, Auburn, AL

October 14, 2011


Acknowledgements

  • Hanqin TIAN

  • Chi ZHANG

  • Guangsheng CHEN

  • Chaoquan LU

  • Wei REN

  • Xiaofeng XU

  • Jia YANG

  • Supported by NASA IDS, NASA LCLUC, DOE NICCR


Outline

  • Model Introduction – Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM)

  • Recent Improvements

  • Validations

  • Applications

  • Discussions


Introduction

  • Regional Earth System Model

http://www.pnnl.gov/atmospheric/iresm/modeling.stm


Model (DLEM)

Chen et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2008; Ren et al., 2007a; Ren et al., 2007b; Ren et al., 2011b; Tian et al., 2011; Tian et al., 2010a; Tian et al., 2010b; Tian et al., 2010c; Xu et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2007


INPUT

MODEL

OUTPUT

Climate

.Temperature

.Precipitation

.Radiation

.Relative Humidity

Atmospheric Compositions

.CO2

.O3

.Nitrogen Deposition

Land Use

.Deforestation

.Urbanization

.Harvest

.Fertilization

.Irrigation

Other Disturbances

.Wildfire

.Disease

.Climate Extremes

CO2 Related:

.Carbon Storage

.Harvest

.Ecosystem Respiration

.Net Primary Productivity

.Net Ecosystem Exchange

.Export of DOC and POC

Driving Factors

Non-CO2 GHG;

.CH4 Emissions

.N2O Emissions

Dynamic

Land

Ecosystem

Model

Water Related;

.Surface Runoff

.Subsurface Flow

.Evapotranspiration

.Soil Moisture

.River Discharge

Soil

.Physical Properties

.Chemical Properties

.Depth

Geomorphology

.Elevation

.Slope

.Aspect

River Network

.Flow Direction

.Accumulative Area

.River Slope

.River Length

.River Width

Vegetation Functional Type

Cropping System

Controlling Factors

Nitrogen Related:

.Nitrogen Storage

.Mineralization Rate

.Nitrofication Rate

.Denitrification Rate

.Export of TN


Improvements

  • From single land cover to cohort structure

  • Rainfall disaggregation

  • Multi-soil layer, TOPMOD, Ground water - CLM methods

  • River routine


  • From single land cover to cohort structure

vegetation cover, impervious surface, lake, stream, sea, bare ground, and glacier


  • Rainfall disaggregation

Sivakumar & Sharma, 2008

Connolly et al., 1998


  • Multi-soil layer, TOPMOD, Ground water - CLM methods

Liu et al., 2008

Niu et al., 2007, 2009

Beven & Kirkby, 1979


Precipitation

Rain

Snow

Sublimation

Canopy Evaporation

Water-surface Evaporation

Evaporation

Liquid

Snow

Interception

Impervious surface

Water body

(lake, stream)

Surface

Runoff

Canopy

(1, 2, …n types)

Discharge

Transpiration

Sublimation

Throughfall

Soil Evaporation

Water Uptake

Surface Runoff

Melt

Snow cover

Infiltration

Saturated area

Zone of aeration

Redistribution

Recharge

Water Table

Zone of saturation

Soil

Recharge

Aquifer

Drainage Runoff

Hydrological processes simulated by DLEM


  • River routine


Scheme of C & N yield and export in the DLEM


Validations

  • Field observations, e.g. AmeriFlux network

  • River gauges

  • Model-data fusion data sets, e.g. up-scaled observations

  • Other regional model results


Model Validations

Distributions of AmeriFlux towers for model validation


Validations

Comparison of simulated discharges with reconstructed historical discharge and USGS observations (MARB)

The comparison of simulated ET vs observations


Rosemount G19 Alternative Rotations (cropland)

Missouri Ozark (Deciduous Broad-leaf Forest)


Watershed 18 within the Coweeta Basin, North Carolina, USA


Connecticut

Hudson

Delaware


Susquehanna

Potmac

James


Verification of C&N export

DIN export from Mississippi river basin


Simulated vs. observed TN of the Potomac river


Applications

  • The Gulf of Mexico

  • The Eastern Coast


Data

  • DEM, slope: HRDRO1K data sets

  • Lake, river fractional data: SRTM-Water Body Data; GLC2000; Global Lakes and Wetlands Database (GLWD)

  • Soil data: ISRIC-WISE derived soil properties with 5×5 arc-minute resolution

  • Climate: North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data from NCEP

  • River networks: 5 arc-minute global river networks (Graham et al., WRR, 1999)


Study area and land cover in 2005 (land cover shows the dominant type in each 5 arc-minute grid)

Sub-basins: EC: East Coast of GOM; MARB: Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin; TB: Texas Basin; RGB: Rio Grande Basin; WSC: Western and Southern Coast of GOM


Land use conversions during 1901-2005

(The different color shows the dominant conversion in each 5 arc-minute grid and total change is larger than 5% of grid area)


Anomalies of ET, runoff, and precipitations during 1901-2008 (unit: mm per year)


Eastern coast

Eastern Coast Study Area


Land-use/land-cover

Land use, 2005

Land use conversions, 1901-2005


Climate change

% per Century of precipitation

°C per Century

Trend in annual temperature and precipitation, 1901-2008


Spatial pattern of runoff

Mean annual runoff, 1901-2008 (mm/year)

Trend in annual runoff, 1901-2008 (% per Century)


Discharge


Export of total organic carbon


TOC yield and trend

Mean TOC yield, 1901-2008 (gC/m2/year)

Trend in TOC yield, 1901-2008 (gC/m2/year/year)


Export of nitrogen


Total nitrogen yield and trend

Mean TN yield, 1901-2008 (gN/m2/year)

Trend in TN yield, 1901-2008 (gN/m2/year/year)


Mean TN export, 1901-2008 (Thousand ton N (109gN)/year)


Driving forces - on TN export

Estimated anomaly of TN export under different simulation experiments


Other applications

  • NACP – Site and regional model-data comparison

  • North America GHG emissions

  • Southeast of US

  • China GHG budget

  • Monsoon Asia

  • Global


The annual mean leaching and exports of nutrients from land surface of North America during 1961-1990 as estimated by Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model with Nutrients Export (DLEM-NE)

A. TN leaching from inland watershed (gN/m2/year)

B. TN export from each 0.5° ×0.5° grid to downstream grid (Metric ton N/grid)

C. TOC leaching from inland watershed (gC/m2/year)

D. TOC export from each 0.5° ×0.5° grid to downstream grid (Metric ton C/grid)


NEE Seasonal cycle (Howland)

Image credit: Dan Ricciuto

Preliminary results of model-data Inter-comparison for the NACP Site-Level Interim Synthesis

  • Peter Thornton, Kevin Schaefer

  • NACP Synthesis Management Team

  • Ameriflux and Fluxnet Canada Investigators

  • Modeling Team Investigators

  • Dan Riccuito, Barbara Jackson


Inverse Models

Forward Models

Net Ecosystem Exchange

Temperate North America

Regional Interim SynthesisBreakout Discussion ReportNACP Interim Synthesis WorkshopOak Ridge, TN, November 9-11, 2009

  • By W. Mac Post


Discussions

  • Coupling with water quality model and regional climate model

  • Social-economic data/model

  • Model-data fusion

  • Super computer technology


CO2,s

O2,s

N2,S

NH3,s

H2CO3*

(M/L)

HCO3-

(M/L)

CO32-

(M/L)

photosynthesis

O2

R

P

hydrolysis

NH3

ana

N uptake

Den..

POC & PON

CpNp

(g(C,N)/m3)

excr

Phytoplankton

a (mg Chla/m3)

Nitri.

acdnc

N2

NO2-

NH4+

NO3-

Nitri.

egestion

Den..

dissolution

1-εh

εh

aca

DOC & DON

Cd Nd

(g(C,N)/m3)

R

excr

Herb. Zooplancton

Zh (g(C,N)/m3

azhnc

egestion

1-εc

εc

LEGEND

R

excr/death

Nitrogen (N) flux

Carn. Zooplancton

Zc (g(C,N)/m3)

Oxygen (O) flux

settling

azcnc

Carbon (C) flux

C&N flux

Chemical equilibrium

Sediments


http://www.yearofplenty.org/2010/10/index.html

THANK YOU!

http://hill.chem.wsu.edu/PhotoGallery/Pullman


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