The dynamic land ecosystem model dlem and its applications in north america
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the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) and Its Applications in north America. Ming-Liang Liu ( [email protected] ) Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, WSU, Pullman, WA Prior Institute: International Center for Climate and Global Change Research

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The dynamic land ecosystem model dlem and its applications in north america
the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM) and Its Applications in north America

Ming-Liang Liu ([email protected])

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, WSU, Pullman, WA

Prior Institute:

International Center for Climate and Global Change Research

Ecosystem Dynamics and Global Ecology Laboratory

Auburn University, Auburn, AL

October 14, 2011


Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements in north America

  • Hanqin TIAN

  • Chi ZHANG

  • Guangsheng CHEN

  • Chaoquan LU

  • Wei REN

  • Xiaofeng XU

  • Jia YANG

  • Supported by NASA IDS, NASA LCLUC, DOE NICCR


Outline
Outline in north America

  • Model Introduction – Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM)

  • Recent Improvements

  • Validations

  • Applications

  • Discussions


Introduction
Introduction in north America

  • Regional Earth System Model

http://www.pnnl.gov/atmospheric/iresm/modeling.stm


Model dlem
Model (DLEM) in north America

Chen et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2008; Ren et al., 2007a; Ren et al., 2007b; Ren et al., 2011b; Tian et al., 2011; Tian et al., 2010a; Tian et al., 2010b; Tian et al., 2010c; Xu et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2007


INPUT in north America

MODEL

OUTPUT

Climate

.Temperature

.Precipitation

.Radiation

.Relative Humidity

Atmospheric Compositions

.CO2

.O3

.Nitrogen Deposition

Land Use

.Deforestation

.Urbanization

.Harvest

.Fertilization

.Irrigation

Other Disturbances

.Wildfire

.Disease

.Climate Extremes

CO2 Related:

.Carbon Storage

.Harvest

.Ecosystem Respiration

.Net Primary Productivity

.Net Ecosystem Exchange

.Export of DOC and POC

Driving Factors

Non-CO2 GHG;

.CH4 Emissions

.N2O Emissions

Dynamic

Land

Ecosystem

Model

Water Related;

.Surface Runoff

.Subsurface Flow

.Evapotranspiration

.Soil Moisture

.River Discharge

Soil

.Physical Properties

.Chemical Properties

.Depth

Geomorphology

.Elevation

.Slope

.Aspect

River Network

.Flow Direction

.Accumulative Area

.River Slope

.River Length

.River Width

Vegetation Functional Type

Cropping System

Controlling Factors

Nitrogen Related:

.Nitrogen Storage

.Mineralization Rate

.Nitrofication Rate

.Denitrification Rate

.Export of TN


Improvements
Improvements in north America

  • From single land cover to cohort structure

  • Rainfall disaggregation

  • Multi-soil layer, TOPMOD, Ground water - CLM methods

  • River routine


vegetation cover, impervious surface, lake, stream, sea, bare ground, and glacier


Sivakumar & Sharma, 2008

Connolly et al., 1998


Liu et al., 2008

Niu et al., 2007, 2009

Beven & Kirkby, 1979


Precipitation in north America

Rain

Snow

Sublimation

Canopy Evaporation

Water-surface Evaporation

Evaporation

Liquid

Snow

Interception

Impervious surface

Water body

(lake, stream)

Surface

Runoff

Canopy

(1, 2, …n types)

Discharge

Transpiration

Sublimation

Throughfall

Soil Evaporation

Water Uptake

Surface Runoff

Melt

Snow cover

Infiltration

Saturated area

Zone of aeration

Redistribution

Recharge

Water Table

Zone of saturation

Soil

Recharge

Aquifer

Drainage Runoff

Hydrological processes simulated by DLEM



Scheme in north Americaof C & N yield and export in the DLEM


Validations
Validations in north America

  • Field observations, e.g. AmeriFlux network

  • River gauges

  • Model-data fusion data sets, e.g. up-scaled observations

  • Other regional model results


Model Validations in north America

Distributions of AmeriFlux towers for model validation


Validations1
Validations in north America

Comparison of simulated discharges with reconstructed historical discharge and USGS observations (MARB)

The comparison of simulated ET vs observations


Rosemount G19 Alternative Rotations (cropland) in north America

Missouri Ozark (Deciduous Broad-leaf Forest)



Connecticut in north America

Hudson

Delaware


Susquehanna in north America

Potmac

James


Verification of c n export
Verification of C&N export in north America

DIN export from Mississippi river basin



Applications
Applications in north America

  • The Gulf of Mexico

  • The Eastern Coast


Data in north America

  • DEM, slope: HRDRO1K data sets

  • Lake, river fractional data: SRTM-Water Body Data; GLC2000; Global Lakes and Wetlands Database (GLWD)

  • Soil data: ISRIC-WISE derived soil properties with 5×5 arc-minute resolution

  • Climate: North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data from NCEP

  • River networks: 5 arc-minute global river networks (Graham et al., WRR, 1999)


Study in north Americaarea and land cover in 2005 (land cover shows the dominant type in each 5 arc-minute grid)

Sub-basins: EC: East Coast of GOM; MARB: Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin; TB: Texas Basin; RGB: Rio Grande Basin; WSC: Western and Southern Coast of GOM


Land use conversions during 1901-2005 in north America

(The different color shows the dominant conversion in each 5 arc-minute grid and total change is larger than 5% of grid area)



Eastern coast
Eastern coast (unit: mm per year)

Eastern Coast Study Area


Land use land cover
Land-use/land-cover (unit: mm per year)

Land use, 2005

Land use conversions, 1901-2005


Climate change
Climate change (unit: mm per year)

% per Century of precipitation

°C per Century

Trend in annual temperature and precipitation, 1901-2008


Spatial pattern of runoff
Spatial pattern of runoff (unit: mm per year)

Mean annual runoff, 1901-2008 (mm/year)

Trend in annual runoff, 1901-2008 (% per Century)


Discharge
Discharge (unit: mm per year)


Export of total organic carbon
Export of total organic carbon (unit: mm per year)


Toc yield and trend
TOC yield and trend (unit: mm per year)

Mean TOC yield, 1901-2008 (gC/m2/year)

Trend in TOC yield, 1901-2008 (gC/m2/year/year)


Export of nitrogen
Export of nitrogen (unit: mm per year)


Total nitrogen yield and trend
Total nitrogen yield and trend (unit: mm per year)

Mean TN yield, 1901-2008 (gN/m2/year)

Trend in TN yield, 1901-2008 (gN/m2/year/year)


Mean TN export, 1901-2008 (Thousand ton N (10 (unit: mm per year) 9gN)/year)


Driving forces on tn export
Driving forces - on TN export (unit: mm per year)

Estimated anomaly of TN export under different simulation experiments


Other applications
Other applications (unit: mm per year)

  • NACP – Site and regional model-data comparison

  • North America GHG emissions

  • Southeast of US

  • China GHG budget

  • Monsoon Asia

  • Global


The annual mean leaching and exports of nutrients from land surface of North America during 1961-1990 as estimated by Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model with Nutrients Export (DLEM-NE)

A. TN leaching from inland watershed (gN/m2/year)

B. TN export from each 0.5° ×0.5° grid to downstream grid (Metric ton N/grid)

C. TOC leaching from inland watershed (gC/m2/year)

D. TOC export from each 0.5° ×0.5° grid to downstream grid (Metric ton C/grid)


NEE Seasonal cycle (Howland) surface of North America during 1961-1990 as estimated by Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model with Nutrients Export (DLEM-NE)

Image credit: Dan Ricciuto

Preliminary results of model-data Inter-comparison for the NACP Site-Level Interim Synthesis

  • Peter Thornton, Kevin Schaefer

  • NACP Synthesis Management Team

  • Ameriflux and Fluxnet Canada Investigators

  • Modeling Team Investigators

  • Dan Riccuito, Barbara Jackson


Inverse Models surface of North America during 1961-1990 as estimated by Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model with Nutrients Export (DLEM-NE)

Forward Models

Net Ecosystem Exchange

Temperate North America

Regional Interim SynthesisBreakout Discussion ReportNACP Interim Synthesis WorkshopOak Ridge, TN, November 9-11, 2009

  • By W. Mac Post


Discussions
Discussions surface of North America during 1961-1990 as estimated by Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model with Nutrients Export (DLEM-NE)

  • Coupling with water quality model and regional climate model

  • Social-economic data/model

  • Model-data fusion

  • Super computer technology


CO surface of North America during 1961-1990 as estimated by Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model with Nutrients Export (DLEM-NE) 2,s

O2,s

N2,S

NH3,s

H2CO3*

(M/L)

HCO3-

(M/L)

CO32-

(M/L)

photosynthesis

O2

R

P

hydrolysis

NH3

ana

N uptake

Den..

POC & PON

CpNp

(g(C,N)/m3)

excr

Phytoplankton

a (mg Chla/m3)

Nitri.

acdnc

N2

NO2-

NH4+

NO3-

Nitri.

egestion

Den..

dissolution

1-εh

εh

aca

DOC & DON

Cd Nd

(g(C,N)/m3)

R

excr

Herb. Zooplancton

Zh (g(C,N)/m3

azhnc

egestion

1-εc

εc

LEGEND

R

excr/death

Nitrogen (N) flux

Carn. Zooplancton

Zc (g(C,N)/m3)

Oxygen (O) flux

settling

azcnc

Carbon (C) flux

C&N flux

Chemical equilibrium

Sediments


http://www.yearofplenty.org/2010/10/index.html surface of North America during 1961-1990 as estimated by Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model with Nutrients Export (DLEM-NE)

THANK YOU!

http://hill.chem.wsu.edu/PhotoGallery/Pullman


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