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Organizational Behavior: An Introduction to Your Life in Organizations. Chapter 6 Health and Stress at Work. Preview. What is your image of a healthy work environment ? Do you really need to be concerned about stress at work? How does stress affect on-the-job performance?

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Organizational Behavior: An Introduction to Your Life in Organizations

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Organizational behavior an introduction to your life in organizations l.jpg

Organizational Behavior:An Introduction to Your Life in Organizations

Chapter 6

Health and Stress at Work

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Preview

  • What is your image of a healthy work environment ?

  • Do you really need to be concerned about stress at work?

  • How does stress affect on-the-job performance?

  • What are some common stressors at work?

  • How might stress affect your health?

  • Do you have a predisposition to stress?

  • How can you cope with stress at work?

  • What do companies do about employee stress?

©2007 Prentice Hall


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What is your image of a healthy work environment?

  • Healthy work environments are those that promote healthy behavior patterns, leading to a sound body and mind and the prevention of disease and sickness

  • Questions from Richard Bolles to consider:

    • What’s happening around here?

    • How do I survive?

    • What is my meaning or mission?

    • How can I be effective?

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Do you really need to be concerned about stress at work?

  • Stress is a state of tension you experience when your usual modes of coping are insufficient

  • A stressor is any event that causes you to feel stress

  • Eustress: when stress is experienced as positive

  • Job stress is the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match a worker’s capabilities, resources, or needs

©2007 Prentice Hall


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What are some common stressors at work?

  • Job stressors

  • Physical factors

  • Work-personal life issues

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Job stressors

  • Role conflict: inability to satisfy multiple sets of expectations for an individual’s work

  • Role ambiguity: occurs when people do not know clearly what has to be done in their jobs

  • Cognitive demands: the responsibilities for a job are beyond your ability to make decisions effectively

  • Overload: the amount of work in your job is beyond your ability to do it by yourself

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Physical factors

  • Commuting

  • Repetitive stress injuries

  • Noise

  • Biogenic triggers: foods that create a stress response all by themselves

  • Safety issues

  • Travel stress

  • Shift work

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Work – personal life issues

  • The inability to balance work and personal life demands

  • Impacts turnover, productivity, job satisfaction, commitment, and costs

©2007 Prentice Hall


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How might stress affect your health?

  • Fight or flight; tend and befriend

  • The stress response

  • Physiological effects

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Fight or flight; Tend and befriend

  • Flight or flight: a set of survival responses that have been passed down to modern human beings from their ancestors

  • Tend and befriend: respond by seeking the nurturing and support of familiar people

©2007 Prentice Hall


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The stress response

  • The stress response is your body’s reaction to a stressor

  • Your brain activates three response systems:

    • the motor cortex sends signals directly to the musculoskeletal system

    • the cerebral cortex signals the hypothalamus, which in turn stimulates the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems

    • three additional hormones—cortisol, corticosterone, and aldosterone—are released

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Physiological effects

  • Stress and anger both increase your susceptibility to physical illness

  • Stress influences pain perception, with high anxiety being related to low pain tolerance

  • Stress is related to coronary heart disease

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Do you have a predisposition to stress?

  • Personality traits

  • Workaholism

  • Type A—Type B Personality Pattern

  • Hardiness

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Personality traits

  • High internal locus of control perceive their jobs as less stressful

  • High self-efficacy react less strongly to work overload

  • Belief as highly effective in coping with stress have better-functioning immune systems

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Workaholism

  • Workaholics: people who rank high on the traits of work involvement and a drive to work

  • Workaholics report higher levels of stress, exhibit higher levels of perfectionism, and report more health-related problems

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Type A – Type B Personality Pattern

  • Type A behavior pattern:

    • Physical characteristics include a loud voice, quick speech, psychomotor activity, and facial muscle tension

    • Related attitudes and emotions are hostility, impatience, anger, and aggressiveness

    • In terms of motivation, high on achievement motivation, competitiveness, and ambition

    • Appear alert and hyperactive and have high work involvement

    • Cognitively, they want control of their environment

  • Type B is opposite

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Hardiness

  • Hardiness: exhibiting attitudes that buffer one from the negative effects of stress

  • Three key attitudes:

    • Commitment

    • Control

    • Challenge

©2007 Prentice Hall


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How can you cope with stress at work?

  • Recognize the symptoms of stress

  • Recognize burnout

  • Identify the stressors in your life

  • Develop a general coping strategy

  • Manage

    • ideas and emotions

    • physical and behavioral factors

    • your environment

    • your time

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Recognize the symptoms of stress

  • Use the checklist in Table 6.4

  • One symptom suggests a concern

  • Several symptoms suggests a pattern

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Recognize burnout

  • Job burnout is a mismatch between a person and their job

  • Symptoms of burnout:

    • Exhaustion

    • Cynicism

    • Negative self-evaluation

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Identify the stressors in your life

  • Use Table 6.5 to determine the stress level in your life today

  • Higher stress levels are associated with greater probability of health problems

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Develop a general coping strategy

Active coping: You make a plan of action and follow it

Distancing: You try to keep away from the situation for a while

Seeking social support: You ask people who have had similar experiences for advice

Resignation: You decide there is nothing you can do to change the situation

Restraint: You try to avoid expressing your feelings

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Manage ideas and emotions

  • Cognitive restructuring is substituting for emotionally-charged ideas about a stressor ideas that are more solution-oriented

  • Take a long term view of current situations

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Manage physical and behavioral factors

  • Get enough sleep and exercise

  • Learn to relax

  • Practice effective ergonomics

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Manage your environment

  • Why not try a:

    • Technology fast

    • People fast

    • “Noise” fast

    • Weekend fast

    • News fast

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Manage your time

  • Measure if time spent is in areas of greatest importance

  • Basic principles of time management:

    • Find out how you waste time

    • Set goals

    • Plan your time

    • Stick to your plan

©2007 Prentice Hall


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What do companies do about employee stress?

  • Analyze the costs of stress

  • Set goals for becoming a healthy organization

  • Establish company programs: The case of work-life balance.

  • Coach managers to recognize issues of health and productivity

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Analyze the costs of stress

  • Stress and its related diseases can be costly in terms of both productivity and profits

  • Stress increases medical costs

  • Reducing stress lowers error rates

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Set goals for becoming a healthy organization

  • Pay attention to culture and processes

  • Undertake direct stress interventions:

    • primary stress interventions are preventive in nature

    • secondary stress interventions mitigate potential health problems

    • tertiary interventions treat the problem after it has been manifest

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Establish company programs: The case of work-life balance

  • Often provides counseling, research and referrals on issues like child care and eldercare

  • Programs for improving physical conditions, offering opportunities during the work day to exercise and eat well, and providing training in ergonomics, worker safety, and relaxation

  • Addressing employee vacation time

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Coach managers to recognize issues of health and productivity

  • Practical approaches:

    • improving physical working conditions

    • redesigning jobs to reduce the incidence of repetitive-strain injuries

    • maintaining job demands at healthy levels

    • providing healthy work schedules that include rotating shifts, using flextime, and reducing forced overtime

    • offering stress management training

    • encouraging social support from co-workers and supervisors

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Apply what you have learned

  • World Class Company: Companies with Award-Winning Wellness Programs

  • Advice from the Pro’s

  • Gain Experience

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Summary – What is your image of a healthy work environment?

  • What’s happening around here?

  • How do I survive?

  • What is my meaning or mission?

  • How can I be effective?

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Summary – Do you really need to be concerned about stress at work?

  • Stress is a state of tension people feel when their usual modes of coping do not work

  • Stress will be a factor in your work team and company

  • Job stress has become a common and costly problem in the American workplace

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Summary – How does stress affect on-the-job performance?

  • Under low stress performance is likely to be low

  • Under moderate stress performance is likely to be high

  • Under extreme stress, performance suffers

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Summary – What are some common stressors at work?

  • The job itself

  • Physical factors

  • Work-personal life issues

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Summary – How might stress affect your health?

  • Men and women react to stress somewhat differently

  • Being constantly under stress without developing the ability to cope with it endangers the health

  • Stress may impair your immune system and enhance your perception of pain

  • It is related to the development of coronary heart disease

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Summary – How will I know if my company is concerned about stress?

  • Has it:

    • analyzed its costs

    • set goals for becoming a healthy organization

    • established stress-related programs

    • taught its managers about stress and its consequences

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Summary – Do you have a predisposition to stress?

  • Take a self-test to determine if you are a Type A workaholic

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Summary – How can you cope with stress at work?

  • Learn to recognize the symptoms of stress, including burnout

  • Identify the stressors in your life

  • Create a plan for active coping, and put your plan for self-management into action

  • Get support from others

©2007 Prentice Hall


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Summary – What do companies do about employee stress?

  • Educate themselves about the costs of stress

  • Set goals for becoming a healthy organization

  • Establish programs for their employees

  • Coach their managers to recognize the links between employee health and productivity

©2007 Prentice Hall


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