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Organizational Behavior: An Introduction to Your Life in Organizations. Chapter 6 Health and Stress at Work. Preview. What is your image of a healthy work environment ? Do you really need to be concerned about stress at work? How does stress affect on-the-job performance?

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organizational behavior an introduction to your life in organizations

Organizational Behavior:An Introduction to Your Life in Organizations

Chapter 6

Health and Stress at Work

©2007 Prentice Hall

preview
Preview
  • What is your image of a healthy work environment ?
  • Do you really need to be concerned about stress at work?
  • How does stress affect on-the-job performance?
  • What are some common stressors at work?
  • How might stress affect your health?
  • Do you have a predisposition to stress?
  • How can you cope with stress at work?
  • What do companies do about employee stress?

©2007 Prentice Hall

what is your image of a healthy work environment
What is your image of a healthy work environment?
  • Healthy work environments are those that promote healthy behavior patterns, leading to a sound body and mind and the prevention of disease and sickness
  • Questions from Richard Bolles to consider:
    • What’s happening around here?
    • How do I survive?
    • What is my meaning or mission?
    • How can I be effective?

©2007 Prentice Hall

do you really need to be concerned about stress at work
Do you really need to be concerned about stress at work?
  • Stress is a state of tension you experience when your usual modes of coping are insufficient
  • A stressor is any event that causes you to feel stress
  • Eustress: when stress is experienced as positive
  • Job stress is the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match a worker’s capabilities, resources, or needs

©2007 Prentice Hall

what are some common stressors at work
What are some common stressors at work?
  • Job stressors
  • Physical factors
  • Work-personal life issues

©2007 Prentice Hall

job stressors
Job stressors
  • Role conflict: inability to satisfy multiple sets of expectations for an individual’s work
  • Role ambiguity: occurs when people do not know clearly what has to be done in their jobs
  • Cognitive demands: the responsibilities for a job are beyond your ability to make decisions effectively
  • Overload: the amount of work in your job is beyond your ability to do it by yourself

©2007 Prentice Hall

physical factors
Physical factors
  • Commuting
  • Repetitive stress injuries
  • Noise
  • Biogenic triggers: foods that create a stress response all by themselves
  • Safety issues
  • Travel stress
  • Shift work

©2007 Prentice Hall

work personal life issues
Work – personal life issues
  • The inability to balance work and personal life demands
  • Impacts turnover, productivity, job satisfaction, commitment, and costs

©2007 Prentice Hall

how might stress affect your health
How might stress affect your health?
  • Fight or flight; tend and befriend
  • The stress response
  • Physiological effects

©2007 Prentice Hall

fight or flight tend and befriend
Fight or flight; Tend and befriend
  • Flight or flight: a set of survival responses that have been passed down to modern human beings from their ancestors
  • Tend and befriend: respond by seeking the nurturing and support of familiar people

©2007 Prentice Hall

the stress response
The stress response
  • The stress response is your body’s reaction to a stressor
  • Your brain activates three response systems:
    • the motor cortex sends signals directly to the musculoskeletal system
    • the cerebral cortex signals the hypothalamus, which in turn stimulates the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
    • three additional hormones—cortisol, corticosterone, and aldosterone—are released

©2007 Prentice Hall

physiological effects
Physiological effects
  • Stress and anger both increase your susceptibility to physical illness
  • Stress influences pain perception, with high anxiety being related to low pain tolerance
  • Stress is related to coronary heart disease

©2007 Prentice Hall

do you have a predisposition to stress
Do you have a predisposition to stress?
  • Personality traits
  • Workaholism
  • Type A—Type B Personality Pattern
  • Hardiness

©2007 Prentice Hall

personality traits
Personality traits
  • High internal locus of control perceive their jobs as less stressful
  • High self-efficacy react less strongly to work overload
  • Belief as highly effective in coping with stress have better-functioning immune systems

©2007 Prentice Hall

workaholism
Workaholism
  • Workaholics: people who rank high on the traits of work involvement and a drive to work
  • Workaholics report higher levels of stress, exhibit higher levels of perfectionism, and report more health-related problems

©2007 Prentice Hall

type a type b personality pattern
Type A – Type B Personality Pattern
  • Type A behavior pattern:
    • Physical characteristics include a loud voice, quick speech, psychomotor activity, and facial muscle tension
    • Related attitudes and emotions are hostility, impatience, anger, and aggressiveness
    • In terms of motivation, high on achievement motivation, competitiveness, and ambition
    • Appear alert and hyperactive and have high work involvement
    • Cognitively, they want control of their environment
  • Type B is opposite

©2007 Prentice Hall

hardiness
Hardiness
  • Hardiness: exhibiting attitudes that buffer one from the negative effects of stress
  • Three key attitudes:
    • Commitment
    • Control
    • Challenge

©2007 Prentice Hall

how can you cope with stress at work
How can you cope with stress at work?
  • Recognize the symptoms of stress
  • Recognize burnout
  • Identify the stressors in your life
  • Develop a general coping strategy
  • Manage
    • ideas and emotions
    • physical and behavioral factors
    • your environment
    • your time

©2007 Prentice Hall

recognize the symptoms of stress
Recognize the symptoms of stress
  • Use the checklist in Table 6.4
  • One symptom suggests a concern
  • Several symptoms suggests a pattern

©2007 Prentice Hall

recognize burnout
Recognize burnout
  • Job burnout is a mismatch between a person and their job
  • Symptoms of burnout:
    • Exhaustion
    • Cynicism
    • Negative self-evaluation

©2007 Prentice Hall

identify the stressors in your life
Identify the stressors in your life
  • Use Table 6.5 to determine the stress level in your life today
  • Higher stress levels are associated with greater probability of health problems

©2007 Prentice Hall

develop a general coping strategy
Develop a general coping strategy

Active coping: You make a plan of action and follow it

Distancing: You try to keep away from the situation for a while

Seeking social support: You ask people who have had similar experiences for advice

Resignation: You decide there is nothing you can do to change the situation

Restraint: You try to avoid expressing your feelings

©2007 Prentice Hall

manage ideas and emotions
Manage ideas and emotions
  • Cognitive restructuring is substituting for emotionally-charged ideas about a stressor ideas that are more solution-oriented
  • Take a long term view of current situations

©2007 Prentice Hall

manage physical and behavioral factors
Manage physical and behavioral factors
  • Get enough sleep and exercise
  • Learn to relax
  • Practice effective ergonomics

©2007 Prentice Hall

manage your environment
Manage your environment
  • Why not try a:
    • Technology fast
    • People fast
    • “Noise” fast
    • Weekend fast
    • News fast

©2007 Prentice Hall

manage your time
Manage your time
  • Measure if time spent is in areas of greatest importance
  • Basic principles of time management:
    • Find out how you waste time
    • Set goals
    • Plan your time
    • Stick to your plan

©2007 Prentice Hall

what do companies do about employee stress
What do companies do about employee stress?
  • Analyze the costs of stress
  • Set goals for becoming a healthy organization
  • Establish company programs: The case of work-life balance.
  • Coach managers to recognize issues of health and productivity

©2007 Prentice Hall

analyze the costs of stress
Analyze the costs of stress
  • Stress and its related diseases can be costly in terms of both productivity and profits
  • Stress increases medical costs
  • Reducing stress lowers error rates

©2007 Prentice Hall

set goals for becoming a healthy organization
Set goals for becoming a healthy organization
  • Pay attention to culture and processes
  • Undertake direct stress interventions:
    • primary stress interventions are preventive in nature
    • secondary stress interventions mitigate potential health problems
    • tertiary interventions treat the problem after it has been manifest

©2007 Prentice Hall

establish company programs the case of work life balance
Establish company programs: The case of work-life balance
  • Often provides counseling, research and referrals on issues like child care and eldercare
  • Programs for improving physical conditions, offering opportunities during the work day to exercise and eat well, and providing training in ergonomics, worker safety, and relaxation
  • Addressing employee vacation time

©2007 Prentice Hall

coach managers to recognize issues of health and productivity
Coach managers to recognize issues of health and productivity
  • Practical approaches:
    • improving physical working conditions
    • redesigning jobs to reduce the incidence of repetitive-strain injuries
    • maintaining job demands at healthy levels
    • providing healthy work schedules that include rotating shifts, using flextime, and reducing forced overtime
    • offering stress management training
    • encouraging social support from co-workers and supervisors

©2007 Prentice Hall

apply what you have learned
Apply what you have learned
  • World Class Company: Companies with Award-Winning Wellness Programs
  • Advice from the Pro’s
  • Gain Experience

©2007 Prentice Hall

summary what is your image of a healthy work environment
Summary – What is your image of a healthy work environment?
  • What’s happening around here?
  • How do I survive?
  • What is my meaning or mission?
  • How can I be effective?

©2007 Prentice Hall

summary do you really need to be concerned about stress at work
Summary – Do you really need to be concerned about stress at work?
  • Stress is a state of tension people feel when their usual modes of coping do not work
  • Stress will be a factor in your work team and company
  • Job stress has become a common and costly problem in the American workplace

©2007 Prentice Hall

summary how does stress affect on the job performance
Summary – How does stress affect on-the-job performance?
  • Under low stress performance is likely to be low
  • Under moderate stress performance is likely to be high
  • Under extreme stress, performance suffers

©2007 Prentice Hall

summary what are some common stressors at work
Summary – What are some common stressors at work?
  • The job itself
  • Physical factors
  • Work-personal life issues

©2007 Prentice Hall

summary how might stress affect your health
Summary – How might stress affect your health?
  • Men and women react to stress somewhat differently
  • Being constantly under stress without developing the ability to cope with it endangers the health
  • Stress may impair your immune system and enhance your perception of pain
  • It is related to the development of coronary heart disease

©2007 Prentice Hall

summary how will i know if my company is concerned about stress
Summary – How will I know if my company is concerned about stress?
  • Has it:
    • analyzed its costs
    • set goals for becoming a healthy organization
    • established stress-related programs
    • taught its managers about stress and its consequences

©2007 Prentice Hall

summary do you have a predisposition to stress
Summary – Do you have a predisposition to stress?
  • Take a self-test to determine if you are a Type A workaholic

©2007 Prentice Hall

summary how can you cope with stress at work
Summary – How can you cope with stress at work?
  • Learn to recognize the symptoms of stress, including burnout
  • Identify the stressors in your life
  • Create a plan for active coping, and put your plan for self-management into action
  • Get support from others

©2007 Prentice Hall

summary what do companies do about employee stress
Summary – What do companies do about employee stress?
  • Educate themselves about the costs of stress
  • Set goals for becoming a healthy organization
  • Establish programs for their employees
  • Coach their managers to recognize the links between employee health and productivity

©2007 Prentice Hall

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