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Creating Capacity for Change: Transforming Library Workflows & Organizations . Ruth Fischer and Rick Lugg R2 Consulting November 8, 2006 Charleston Library Conference. Our Focus. Library Workflow Analysis & Redesign Organizational Redesign Facilitation & Strategic Planning

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creating capacity for change transforming library workflows organizations

Creating Capacity for Change: Transforming Library Workflows & Organizations

Ruth Fischer and Rick Lugg

R2 Consulting

November 8, 2006

Charleston Library Conference

our focus
Our Focus
  • Library Workflow Analysis & Redesign
  • Organizational Redesign
  • Facilitation & Strategic Planning
  • Change Management
  • Integration of ILS and Vendor Systems
  • Training and Animated Tutorials
  • Product Analysis & Development for the Academic Library Market
  • Professional Seminars & Workshops
recent experience
Libraries

University of Colorado

University of Missouri/Kansas City

University of Utah

University of Michigan

University of Nebraska/Omaha

MIT Libraries

Skidmore College Library

Minnesota State University/Mankato

Arizona State University Libraries

Carleton/St. Olaf Colleges (Bridge)

Vassar College Libraries

Macalester College

University of Minnesota

Colby College

University of Texas/Dallas

Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, Yale University

Vendors

Blackwell’s

Casalini Libri

CAVAL Collaborative Solutions

Common Ground Publishing

Eastern Book

Ebook Library

Follett Library Resources

HARRASSOWITZ

Innovative Interfaces

Integrated Book Technology

OCLC

RR Bowker

Sage Reference

University of California Press

Xrefer

YBP Library Services

RecentExperience
the library environment
The Library Environment

Prognostications

Collection Development

Acquisitions/Serials

Cataloging/Discovery

Vendor Systems & Services

from the lita blog
From the LITA Blog
  • 2002 was the year of the blog
  • 2003 was the year of the RSS feed
  • 2004 was the year of the Wiki
  • 2005 was the year of the podcast
  • 2006 was the year of ?????
ts big heads 2006
TS Big Heads (2006)
  • ERM Implementations
  • Future of Cataloging/Metadata
  • Casalini Enhanced Cataloging Trial
  • Link Resolver Implmentations
  • eBook pilot projects
  • Digitization
  • Workflow/Process Reviews
      • (Cornell, Texas, Mich)
  • “Hidden” Collections
  • Asian Languages
top tech trends 2005
Top Tech Trends 2005
  • Web 2.0/Library 2.0
  • Storage
  • Blogs, Libraries and Citizen Journalists
  • E-Books
  • OPACs, FRBR, and Interface Design
  • Google Print, Scholar, and Metasearching
  • User Tagging, Automated Tagging
  • Digital Rights Management
web 2 0 library 2 0
Web 2.0/Library 2.0

“Web 2.0 is a philosophy that customers are in control.”

--Dick Costolo, FeedBurner

keys to the future
Keys to the Future?
  • Quality learning spaces
  • Creating metadata
  • Virtual reference
  • Information literacy
  • Choosing resources & managing licenses
  • Collecting & digitizing archival materials
  • Managing a digital repository

Source: Jerry D. Campbell, “Changing a Cultural Icon: The Academic Library as a Virtual Destination” Educause Review, (January/February 2006) 17-30.

taiga forum 2006
TAIGA Forum 2006

Provocative Statement #5

“A large number of libraries will no longer have local OPACs. Instead, we will have entered a new age of data consolidation (either shared catalogs or catalogs that are integrated into discovery tools), both of our catalogs and our collections.”

taiga forum 200612
TAIGA Forum 2006

Provocative Statement #11

“Simple aggregation of resources will not be enough. They have to be specialized for constituency use and projected into user environments (my.yahoo, e-portfolio, CMS, RSS aggregator, podcast). Workflow replaces database and website as the primary locus of attention. The library’s role is to project specialized services into research and learning workflows.”

slide13

OCLC adaptation

of Liz Lyon

changing users
Changing Users
  • NetGen Students
  • Conditioned by: Amazon, Google, NetFlix
  • Undergraduates: course-centered research
  • Strong preference for electronic
  • Strong preference for full-text, multimedia
  • Interactivity, visual cues, tutorials
  • Abhorrence of documentation
  • Naivete about resource quality
  • 2% of library users begin search from library Web site
changing users16
Changing Users
  • Retiring faculty
  • Peer-to-Peer file sharing, communication
  • FaceBook; iTunes
  • Gaming trial & error approach
  • Zero tolerance for delay
  • Group learning; collaboration
  • CPA
  • University of Rochester “work practices” study
    • Dorms, frats, gyms, student union, dining halls, buses, computer center, library
library disconnects
Library Disconnects?
  • Not enough multimedia content for online users
  • Require users to learn from experts how to access & use information and services
  • Assume that work progresses in a linear fashion
  • Library presence is mainly “outside” main online place for student activity
  • Libraries not using technology and standards like RSS to permit choice-driven alerts on new resources or services
  • Libraries typically do not provide tools, hardware or software, nor support for students to create new digital products

Chuck Thomas and Robert H. McDonald, “Millennial Net Value(s): Disconnects Between Libraries and the Information Age Mindset”,

limitations of listening to users
Limitations of Listening to Users
  • Users have a limited frame of reference
  • Users focus on past and current experience
  • Users tend to offer incremental, rather than bold, suggestions
  • Users are less familiar with potential of future possibilities
  • Innovation is the responsibility of staff

Anthony W. Ulwick, Harvard Business Review, January 2002

collection developments
Collection Developments
  • RCL: Resources for College Libraries
  • WCA: WorldCat Collection Analysis
  • OCLC: 26 million items held by 10+ libraries
  • Coordinated selection of eBooks/pBooks
  • Increases in A-V, media collecting
  • “Hidden” Special Collections and Archives
  • Blogs and other kinetic content
  • Digital Libraries/Institutional Repositories
  • Print Journal Cancellations
  • UC: 93% redundancy in Gov Docs
  • An “expansive” view of collections
  • Mass digitization of historical print (Google, OCA)
janus conference ccdo
Janus Conference/CCDO
  • RECON: Coordinate conversion of the scholarly record nationally & internationally
  • PROCON: Accelerate the transition to digital publishing—push publishers to act now
  • CORE: Collective definition by research libraries; collect same core; different advanced materials
  • Work collectively in negotiations with publishers
  • Archiving: divide responsibility for low-use print; take back responsibility from publishers for digital
  • Create and support alternative channels of scholarly communication
acquisitions serials
Acquisitions/Serials
  • More subscriptions, fewer purchases
  • More cancellations of print serials
  • E-Selection and batch export from vendor databases
  • Role of the subscription agent
  • OCLC record number available in some vendor records
  • Extended consortial history at point of selection/order
  • Batch checking of orders against holdings
  • Ability to order eBooks from approval vendor systems
  • Emerging services from Asian and European vendors
  • New title alerts for faculty
  • Interfaces with University accounting
acquisitions serials33
Acquisitions/Serials
  • New tasks: trials, negotiation, licensing of e-resources
  • Participation in consortial deals
  • Acquisitions/ILL convergence (borrow or buy?)
  • Increase in Media orders – difficult to source
  • Increase in East Asian ordering
  • Batch checking of orders against holdings
  • Enabling vendor systems as OpenURL Sources
  • New title alerts for faculty
  • Extended consortial history at point of selection/order
  • Group comparison/monitoring tools
cataloging discovery
Cataloging/Discovery
  • RDA (Resource Description & Access); FRBR
  • OPAC: Discover or locate?
  • Reduced emphasis on controlled vocabulary (UC System, Harvard, Calhoun report)
  • Increased need for non-MARC metadata (MODS, Dublin Core, VRA Core, EADS, DOI)
  • “Satellite” systems for e-resource access (ERMs, A-Z lists, link resolvers, proxy servers)
  • Expansion of outsourced cataloging from Western European vendors, A-V vendors
  • Re-envisioning user search (NCSU, Queens Library)
cataloging discovery38
Cataloging/Discovery
  • RLG/OCLC merger
  • LC Series Authority controversy
  • Access Level records for Serials
  • Task Force on non-English Access (Sept 2006 report)
  • Cost of Authority Control
  • User-assigned subject tags
  • Union catalog as gateway
  • WorldCat as gateway
  • Google Book Search as gateway
  • Google Scholar as gateway
  • Metasearch/Federated search as gateway
  • Enhanced OPAC display; New Items lists; RSS feeds
uc bib services task force
UC Bib Services Task Force

“The current Library catalog is poorly designed for the tasks of finding, discovering, and selecting the growing set of resources available in our libraries. It is best at locating and obtaining a known item. […] We offer a fragmented set of systems to search for published information […], each with very different tools for identifying and obtaining materials. For users, these distinctions are arbitrary.”

vendor systems services
Vendor Systems/Services
  • Integration of eBooks into monographs mainstream (BBS/EBL/ebrary; YBP/netLibrary; Coutts/Publishers)
  • Federated search products (Primo, Encore, Central Search, etc)
  • Knowledgebases for e-resources (SFX, Serials Solutions, EBSCO)
  • ERM systems (III, ExLibris, Serials Solutions, TDNet) and via alliances, e.g. SerSol and sirsidynix)
  • Integration: ILS, Link Resolver, ERM, A-Z List)
  • E-Journal Management from agents (EBSCO EJM, SwetsWise, HERMIS)
  • Inventory/workflow management systems for Archives
  • Developing services from Asian vendors
competitive advantages
Competitive Advantages
  • The Library “brand” (quality assurance)
  • Breadth & Depth of Print Collections
  • Special Collections
  • Metadata and Information Structure
  • Relationships with Academic Departments
  • Controlled vocabularies & classification
  • Locally-produced Original Digital Content
  • Archiving
print workflow
Print Workflow
  • Resource Identification
  • Selection / De-selection
  • Ordering and Order Maintenance
  • Receiving and Payment
  • Providing Access
    • Cataloging
    • Holdings Maintenance
    • Physical Prep
e resources workflow
E-Resources Workflow
  • Resource Identification
  • Trials / Decision Tracking
  • Selection
  • License Evaluation / Negotiation
  • Ordering and Order Maintenance
  • Payment / Pre-payment
  • Activation / Registration
  • Cataloging
  • Holdings Maintenance
  • Resource Discovery
  • Access Management
  • Usage Tracking
  • Renewals / Cancellations
five steps of workflow redesign
FiveSteps of Workflow Redesign
  • Understand the current environment (perform a workflow audit)
  • Identify best “possible” practices (make recommendations)
  • Demonstrate the benefits (provide the rationale)
  • Enable the organization to change
  • Plan and implement changes (take action)
understand the current environment
Understand the Current Environment
  • Collect documents and data
  • Interview staff individually
  • Organizational structure
  • System and vendor capabilities
  • Branch library and consortial dependencies
  • Relationships with faculty / patrons
  • Physical environment
  • Strategic plan
tactics
Tactics
  • Emphasize that the purpose of workflow analysis is to focus resources on the highest priority tasks and NOT to plan for job elimination.
  • Listen to what others have to say at each step in the process and ask follow-up questions for clarification
  • Refrain from “Yes, buts …”
  • Allow people to reach their own conclusions and to make recommendations
    • Request alternative scenarios with pros and cons for each recommendation
  • Remember: “There is nothing as useless as doing efficiently that which should not be done at all.”

Peter Drucker

five steps of workflow redesign63
FiveSteps of Workflow Redesign
  • Understand the current practice (perform a workflow audit)
  • Identify best “possible” practices (make recommendations)
  • Demonstrate the benefits (provide the rationale)
  • Enable the organization to change
  • Plan and implement changes (take action)
r2 workflow principles
R2 Workflow Principles
  • Know your costs
  • Incorporate “systems thinking”
  • Simplify and standardize requirements
  • Create a mainstream
  • Automate the mainstream
  • Take full advantage of existing resources
  • Outsource sometimes
  • Establish quantifiable goals
  • Measure performance
  • Control quality via sampling
  • Make strategic choices
jane ouderkirk s drift down theory
Jane Ouderkirk’s Drift Down Theory
  • No librarian should do a job that a paraprofessional can do
  • Not paraprofessional should do a job that a clerical staff member can do
  • No clerical staff member should do a job that a student can do
  • No human being should do a job that a machine can do
remember the user
Remember the User

Public services rely directly on collections and technical services.

Workflow changes should directly benefit the patron.

The library must balance immediate patron needs and long-term archival responsibilities.

sample benchmarks
Sample Benchmarks
  • Selection
    • 9% of materials budget encumbered each month
  • Ordering
    • Orders placed within 24 hours of receipt in Acq
  • Receiving
    • Same day
  • Copy Cataloging
    • 5 per hour
  • Original Cataloging
    • 1 per hour
  • Shelf preparation
    • Keep in-house costs below $2 per piece
  • Dock to shelf
    • 5 days
jim collins on saying no
Jim Collins on Saying “No”

“Enduring great institutions […] separate core values and fundamental purpose (which should never change) from mere operating practices, cultural norms and business strategies (which adapt endlessly to a changing world). Remaining true to your core values […] means, above all, rigorous clarity not just about what to do, but equally, what to not do.”

Jim Collins, “Good to Great and the Social Sectors”

ISBN: 978-0-9773264-0-2

demonstrate the benefits
Demonstrate the Benefits
  • Eliminate 7,000+ OCLC downloads
  • Eliminate item-by-item fund assignment and checking 4-5,000 items
  • Eliminate manual tallies of fund balances
  • Eliminate keying of 7,000 PO lines
  • Eliminate printing, bursting, mailing 10,000 paper POs
  • Eliminate keying of 7,000 invoice lines for monographs
  • Eliminate keying of 2,400 invoice lines for serials
  • Eliminate creation of 7,000 item records
  • Eliminate keying of 12,600+ invoice lines (in Accounts Payable)
  • Eliminate copy cataloging for 5,600+ titles
  • Eliminate keying of 505 Contents notes for 2,000+ titles
  • Eliminates full marking/shelf prep for 5,600 titles; all but spine labels for and additional 1,400 titles
strategic benefits
Strategic Benefits
  • Time freed for new initiatives
  • Reduced or eliminated backlogs
  • Improved relationships with academic departments
  • Improved relationship with Accounting Office
  • Improved relationship with Development Office
  • Improved relationships with Consortial Partners
  • Future orientation
  • Rational and defensible decision making
  • Organizational, rather than personal priorities
  • Informed and autonomous workforce
  • Reinforced position on campus
  • Better patron service!
slide72

Combined Benefits of Exported Order Records, PromptCat Records and Expanded Approval Plans

common organizational issues
Common Organizational Issues
  • Lack of strong leadership/incompetent middle management
  • No shared vision of the future
  • Faculty/staff divides; tenure requirements
  • AARP effect; little succession planning
  • Fixed staff size; hard to hire Acquisitions librarians
  • Sense of victimhood (we’re poor; nobody loves us)
  • Lack of awareness; inadequate communication

“I don’t even know what the IR is!”

  • Love of print; print oriented faculty; print won’t go away
  • Running out of space
  • Cheap storage
common organizational issues75
Common Organizational Issues
  • Costs still unfamiliar
  • Being “stuck”; unwillingness to promote next generation of librarians
  • Difficult personalities unchecked; culture of non-confrontational management
  • Lack of project management skills
  • How to move from “project to production”
  • Digital Initiatives driven out of IT
  • Branch-centric thinking
  • Libraries are still competing with each other
enable the organization
Enable the Organization
  • Focus on developing a new vision --- be specific --- establish clear priorities
  • Re-draft the org chart from the bottom up
  • Move staff away from low-value tasks and tasks that can be automated --- trust that they can step up to new tasks
  • Identify staff (and management) that are best equipped for change, and move them to the positions that will require the most
  • Hire and promote non-MLS managers
  • Clarify expectations --- even for professional and problem employees
enable the organization77
Enable the Organization
  • Eliminate the expert orientation to problem solving
  • Mainstream Digital/Electronic Content (starve print)
  • Educate faculty and university administration
  • Cooperate with other libraries (regionally and nationally)
  • Be bold. Make the organizational changes dramatic enough to communicate the full magnitude of what you hope to accomplish
one year s work
One Year’s Work
  • University of Colorado-Boulder
  • University of Missouri-Kansas City
  • University of Utah
  • University of Michigan
  • University of Nebraska at Omaha
  • MIT Libraries
  • Minnesota State University, Mankato
  • Arizona State University
  • Carleton/St. Olaf Colleges
  • Vassar College
project objectives
Project Objectives
  • Reduce time spent on print
  • Create capacity for e-resources management
  • Create capacity for Special Collections cataloging
  • Reduce or eliminate backlogs
  • Rationalize branch library workflows
  • Restructure organization to support e-resources and digital initiatives
  • Position Libraries for growth without expansion of staff
  • Investigate cooperative collection development and technical services
  • Advise on disposition of open positions
common workflow issues
Common Workflow Issues
  • Overemphasis on print
  • Lack of a mainstream (culture of exceptions)
  • Limited understanding of costs
  • Uncontrolled gifts and endowment funds
  • Underutilization of ILS and other automation capabilities
  • Underutilization of vendor/agent services
  • Misallocated staffing
  • Limited view of quality
  • Staff values overrule patron preferences
common activities
Common Activities
  • Automated Retrieval Centers (location)
  • Building additions/renovations (shifting)
  • Increased ILL/RAPID/Direct Borrowing
  • Large-scale cancellations of print serials
  • Shared approval plans; cooperative collection development projects
  • Transfers to remote storage
  • Knowledge Commons/Information Commons
common ironies
Common Ironies
  • Many old items must be cataloged to move to storage
  • Share approval plans can disrupt benefits of consolidation, automation and batch processing
  • It’s easier and temporarily cheaper to store than to weed
  • Withdrawals and transfers increase print workloads
  • Print serials cancellations initially create more print-related work—holdings maintenance, etc.
  • Gifts can be more labor-intensive than purchase
workflow issues in cd
Workflow Issues in CD
  • Focus on item-by-item selection --- belief in this process
  • Underutilization of approval plans
  • Paper-based selection
  • Love of print; conservative faculty
  • Mistrust of Acquisitions --- shadow systems
  • Fear of Shelf-ready --- high returns
  • Less than 20% of “selector” time spent on CD
  • Lack of awareness about non-print initiatives
  • Serials cancellations projects --- time
  • Selection “peaks and valleys”
  • Uncertainty about fund balances
  • Lack of familiarity with ILS, particularly the Acq module
how to increase capacity in cd
How to Increase Capacity in CD
  • Expanded reliance on approval plans --- move away from item-by-item decisions
  • Virtual review shelf
  • Single approval fund
  • Simplified fund structures
  • Establish interdisciplinary funds
  • Revisit allocation formulas
  • Reduce the budget for print
  • Use the materials budget for access tools and services
  • Rules-based cancellation of print serials; withdrawals
  • Benchmarks for selection (9% per month)
cd capacity for what
CD --- Capacity for What?
  • Expanded definition of collections
  • Collection analysis
      • Gap and overlap studies
      • ER usage
      • ILL requests
      • Circ data
      • Resource sharing opportunities
  • Integration of eBooks (investigate cool eBooks)
  • Selection of blogs; free web resources
  • Faculty outreach
  • Instruction
  • Pushing content to users; course management systems
  • Identify and analyze content for the IR
workflow issues in acquisitions
Workflow Issues in Acquisitions
  • Item-by-item search and order

(printing out electronic selections)

  • Lack of consolidation
      • Local duplication control
      • Lack of certainty
  • Underutilized batch processes
  • Significant increase in multi-media – how to source?
  • Inadequate follow-up on orders; poor communication w/ bibs
  • Seasonal order spikes
  • Branch redundancies (check-in again)
  • Confusion about standing vs firm order
  • Voucher/reconcilliation w/University Accounting
  • Outdated ideas
how to increase capacity in acq
How to Increase Capacity in Acq
  • Consolidate purchasing
  • Implement electronic selection/batch order creation/electronic invoicing
  • Implement an electronic interface with University Accounting
  • Stop signing things; stop saving paper
  • Understand vendor service options
      • Invoice sort
      • Fund code printed on packing slip
      • # of bib slips
acquisitions capacity for what
Acquisitions --- Capacity for What?
  • Non-mainstream orders (OP, video, foreign)
  • Claiming
  • Proactive electronic resources/URL maintenance
  • Copy cataloging
  • Collecting usage data
  • ERM maintenance
      • Contact records
      • License records (?)
  • Scanning for digitization
  • Searching/discarding gifts
  • Catalog maintenance (holdings)
workflow issues in print serials
Workflow Issues in Print Serials
  • Missing issues
  • Maintenance of check-in records
  • Confusion with e
  • Renewal invoice always requires title review
  • Freebies/Samples
  • Student labor problems
  • Where do SOs belong?
  • How about electronic SOs?
how to increase capacity in print serials
How to Increase Capacity in Print Serials
  • Cancel more print – make it rules-based
  • Reduce check-in; claiming; binding
  • Bind incomplete --- use glue
  • Discard if digital archive is available
  • Employ students
  • Throw out the freebies
  • Share “last-copy” responsibility
print serials capacity for what
Print Serials - Capacity for What?
  • Electronic resources maintenance
  • Withdrawals; transfers to storage
  • Add print holdings to knowledgebase of link resolver
  • Scanning for digitization
  • Serials expertise for Special Collections
workflow issues in cataloging
Workflow Issues in Cataloging
  • Backlogs
  • Seeking perfection – 100% review--fear of errors
  • Lack of systematic quality control
  • Lack of expertise for non-book, non-English
  • Authority control – first time headings, etc.
  • Single record for p/e/microform-high maintenance
  • ROI (Return on Investment) – cataloging practice and rules vs. user behavior
  • How to balance efficiency with PCC responsibility
how to increase cataloging capacity
How to Increase Cataloging Capacity
  • Use available copy, including PromptCat, Marcive and other third-party records
  • Pressure vendors for records (A-V, Asian, scores)
  • Batch approach to backlogs (e.g., Marcadia)
  • Adopt a perspective of “good enough”
  • Push tasks down to lowest competent level
  • Catalog only to the level necessary
  • Accept duplicate call numbers
  • Adopt non-MARC standards (e.g., VRA Core)
  • Shelve with brief records
  • Stop 100% review; substitute sampling
  • Impose productivity quotas
  • Stop transliteration for Asian languages
cataloging capacity for what
Cataloging - Capacity for What?
  • Backlog reduction
  • Special Collections
  • Archives
  • Government Documents
  • Retrospective conversion (sparingly!)
  • Digital Resources
  • Create metadata standards
  • Apply non-MARC metadata (Dublin Core, EAD, MODS/METS)
workflow issues in eresources
Workflow Issues in eResources
  • Understaffing -- not seen as mainstream
  • Few defined workflows or best practices
  • Expertise is difficult to distribute
    • License interpretation
    • Price negotiation—”package” variations
    • Consortial deals
  • Artificial divide between databases and e-journals – separate lists, updates
  • Where do eBooks and eSeries fit?
  • Multiple access paths to maintain
  • Third-party services still evolving
how to increase capacity in e r
How to Increase Capacity in E-R
  • Optimize third-party support (Serials Solutions, TDNet, Agents, ILS, ERM)
  • “Starve” print for staff; “feed” e-resources
  • Rationalize/synchronize access paths
  • Accept multiple record approach for cataloging
  • Implement an ERM (to clarify workflow and increase staff participation)
  • Assure involvement of Acquisitions, Cataloging & Collection Development
  • Redefine E-Resources as the mainstream—prioritize it!
e resources capacity for what
E-Resources—Capacity for What?
  • Still more e
  • Timelier, more reliable user access to valued content
  • Develop “push” or alerting capabilities
workflow issues in special collections and archives
Workflow Issues in Special Collections and Archives
  • Massive cataloging backlogs for unique material
  • Inadequate subject expertise for original cataloging
  • Insufficient space—climate control issues
  • Security concerns—material can’t be moved
  • Significant non-book collections
    • Manuscripts; pamphlets
    • Photos; multi-media; sound recordings
  • Potential overlap with Archives and Inst. Repository
  • Lack of systematic workflow controls (status, inventory)
  • Lack of integration with curriculum
  • No constituency for some collections
how to increase capacity in spec
How to Increase Capacity in SPEC
  • Re-evaluate the investment: is it mission-critical?
  • If not, sell, trade or discard items
  • Recognize different cataloging needs
    • Copy catalog when copy is available
    • Create a “not-so-rare” category
    • Rare book cataloging only when appropriate
  • Use collection-level records in OPAC
  • Emphasize Web-based finding aids--EAD
spec capacity for what
SPEC—Capacity for What?
  • Increased digitization
    • Books
    • Manuscripts
    • Photos
    • Maps
    • Music
    • Multi-media
  • Metadata for digital objects
  • Integrate more fully with curriculum
  • E-Commerce?
workflow issues in documents
Workflow Issues in Documents
  • Multiple document collections—different needs
      • Federal
      • State
      • Regional/Local
      • International
  • Multiple classification schemes--conversions
  • Backlogs
  • Problems with batch record loads
  • “Print is the copy of record”
  • High degree of redundancy, effect of digital?
  • Mistrust of government to maintain archival access
how to increase capacity in documents
How to Increase Capacity in Documents
  • Define a strategy for Federal e-documents
      • Limit overlap with other institutions
      • Limit local hosting—rely on GPO
      • Withdraw print that is digitally archived, widely held
      • Find ways to limit effort
  • Don’t convert SuDoc or UN to LC
  • Use third-party records, but manage them more closely
documents capacity for what
Documents—Capacity for What?
  • Release staff from Federal Documents to focus on state and local—more unique resources
  • Withdrawals/weeding of print Documents
  • Increase scope of Federal Documents access (electronically)
  • Integrate more fully into curriculum
workflow issues in ir
Workflow Issues in IR
  • Concept poorly understood by most staff and faculty; confusion with Digital Library
  • “I could fit it on my iPod!”
  • Standards still evolving for content and metadata
  • Limited capacity for creating metadata
  • No consensus on IR workflow
  • Content acquisition is ad hoc—not part of CD
  • Most projects driven by IT departments
  • Copyright issues are a bottleneck
  • Potential overlap with Archives and Course Management Systems
how to increase capacity in ir
How to Increase Capacity in IR
  • Clarify the mission
  • Formalize workflows
  • Get production out of IT and into CD, Acq, Cat
  • Establish or use appropriate metadata standards
  • Expand copyright experience; e.g., does this contract allow a pre-print on the IR?
  • Coordinate with Archives and Records Management – avoid redundant efforts
ir capacity for what
IR—Capacity for What?
  • Develop coherent IR collection policy
  • Clarify relationships with:
      • Course Management System: archiving courses
      • Archives: some faculty/staff-produced content there
      • Records Management
  • Implement a Workflow (Utah example)
  • Highlight and promote locally-produced digital content
  • Digitization of some content
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“Greatness is not a function of circumstance. Greatness, it turns out, is largely a matter of conscious choice, and discipline.”

Jim Collins, “Good to Great and the Social Sectors”

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