Desertification climate change and sustainable development
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Desertification, climate change and sustainable development. Gilyana Bovaeva Pace Law School. Introduction.

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Desertification climate change and sustainable development

Desertification, climate change and sustainable development

Gilyana Bovaeva

Pace Law School


Introduction

Introduction

  • Desertification is a creeping global problem Deserts cover about 30 % of the earth’s land, and situated mainly between tropical and subtropical regions north and south of the equator, at about 30 north and 30 south latitude. Furthermore, determining which changes are natural and which are human caused is difficult because little is known about the long-term natural dynamics of arid lands.


Topics of discussion

Topics of Discussion

  • The causes of desertification  and the consequences of desertification

  • The measures combating the world

    desertification

  • Desertification and global climate change

  • Desertification and sustainable development

  • Russian experience in desertification assessment

  • Legal aspects for combating desertification


Definitions and classifications

Definitions and classifications

  • Adesert is an area where evaporation exceeds precipitation. Precipitation is typically less than 25 centimeters (10 inches) a year and is often scattered unevenly throughout a year

    The classification of deserts based on the level of rainfall combined with different average temperatures. There are tropical, temperate and cold deserts.


Desertification climate change and sustainable development

Climate graphs showing typical variations in annual

temperature and precipitation in tropical, temperate

and polar deserts


The causes of desertification

The causes of desertification  

·Overgrazing on fragile arid and semiarid rangelands

· Deforestation without reforestation

· Surface mining without land reclamation

· Irrigation techniques that lead to increased erosion

·  Salt buildup and waterlogged soil


The causes of desertification1

The causes of desertification  

·Farming on land with unsuitable terrain or soils

  • · Soil compaction by farm machinery and cattle hoofs

  • · Wind factor


The consequences of desertification

The consequences of desertification

·Worsening drought

·    Famine

·  Declining living standards

· Swelling numbers of environmental refugees


The measures combating the world desertification

The measures combating the world desertification

  • Each world region has its own unique mix of activities to combat the desertification. Some areas are subject to deforestation or salt buildup due to irrigation, while others suffer from exploitative cropping that depletes soil fertility and aggravates erosion, or from overuse of the land by grazing animals. There is a spectrum of problem evaluations and proposed solutions.


Desertification climate change and sustainable development

  • The most effective ways to

  • combat desertification

  • ·Drastically reduce overgrazing

  • ·Reducing deforestation and

  • increasing reforestation

  • ·Reduce the destructive forms of planting,

  • irrigation and mining

  • ·Rationale land use

  • ·Restoring soil fertility by planting trees

  • and grasses with anchor the soil and hold water


Desertification and global climate change

Desertification and global climate change

  • Climate change could worsen the effects of desertification. According to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), "countries with arid and semi-arid areas or areas liable to floods, drought and desertification ... are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change


Desertification and sustainable development

Desertification and sustainable development

Land degradation affects the quantity and quality of freshwater supplies. Drought and desertification are associated with lower water levels in rivers, lakes, and aquifers. For example, unsustainable irrigation practices can dry the rivers that feed large lakes; the Aral Sea and Lake Chad.


Russian experience in desertification assessment

Russian experience in desertification assessment

  • The dying of the Aral Sea and its drainage basin is one of the late twentieth century’s foremost examples of human-induced environmental degradation.

    Another example is a southern part of Russian Plain – the republic of Kalmikia.


Legal aspects for combating desertification

Legal aspects for combating desertification

  • The Convention to Combat Desertification was formulated in 1992. This convention has been ratified by more than 60 countries. Along the way, however, the term desertification has been critiqued as being geographically limited.


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