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Greece: The Beginnings of Western Civilization. Impact of Geography. How did geography affect the development of Greece? In central & southern Greece, no one lives more than 40 miles from the sea. Plato wrote: Like frogs around a pond, we have settled around the shores of the sea.

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Impact of geography
Impact of Geography

  • How did geography affect the development of Greece?

  • In central & southern Greece, no one lives more than 40 miles from the sea. Plato wrote: Like frogs around a pond, we have settled around the shores of the sea.

Acropolis parthenon

Santorini atlantis

Mask of agamemnon
Mask ofAgamemnon

The tyrants
The Tyrants




Persian wars
Persian Wars Democracy

Persian wars1
Persian Wars Democracy

  • Herodotus wrote History of the Persian Wars

  • Wars began in Ionia about 520 BCE

  • Persians conquered the area

  • Greeks eventually revolted with help of Athens

  • Darius put down revolt and vows revenge on Athenians

  • 490 BCE Persian fleet landed at Marathon Democracy

  • Athenians won

  • Sent Pheidippides back to Athens with message

  • 10 years later son Xerxes attacks

  • Greeks lost at Thermopylae “Hot Gates” but Spartan king Leonidas and 300 soldiers fought to last man

Age of pericles
Age of Pericles Democracy

  • Greek culture reaches peak – advances in art and sciences

  • Pericles – Athenian general determined to rebuild Athens

  • Has Parthenon built. Hires Phidias to sculpt statue of Athena

  • Makes a number of contributions to ATHENS

Peloponnesian war 431 404 bce
Peloponnesian War 431-404 BCE Democracy

  • Thucydides wrote History of the Peloponnesian Wars

  • Began as a competition for allies

  • Spart and Atens went to war – fought off and on for 27 years

  • Plague swept through Athens killing ¼ of the population (including Pericles)

  • 4ll BCE Athens suffered internal revolt

Thermopylae leonidas 300
Thermopylae & Leonidas’ 300 Democracy

*Herodotus recounted an incident that preceded the Battle of Thermopylae. The Spartan Dienekes was told the Persian archers were so numerous that when they fired their volleys, their arrows would blot out the sun. He responded with “So much the better, we'll fight in the shade”. [Herodotus The Histories, Book Seven, section 226.]

Spartans Prepare for the Battle of Thermopylae

Decisive Battles: Thermopylae

Delian league athenian empire
Delian League & Athenian Empire Democracy

  • League of Nations/UN

  • Protection

  • Dues

Golden age of greece 480 430 bce
Golden Age of Greece Democracy(480-430 BCE)

  • Hellenic: pure Greek style

    • ideal beauty, not realism;

    • harmony, order, balance, & proportion

  • Sophists:

    • no absolute truth;

    • what people see through their senses is the source of knowledge;

    • Man is the measure of all things

Greek drama
Greek Drama Democracy

  • Honors Dionysus

  • Amphitheatre

  • Sophocles & Tragedies

  • Aristophanes & Comedies

Athens: City of Slaves & Artisans

  • Impact on technological innovation?

  • Focused on philosophy, beauty, nature…

Phidias Democracy

Parthenon Democracy

Pericles Democracy

How does Pericles’ Funeral Oration compare to Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address?

Philosophers search for truth wisdom
Philosophers: DemocracySearch for Truth & Wisdom!

  • Socrates: The unexamined life is not worth living.

  • Plato: We can easily forgive a child who is afraid of the dark; the real tragedy of life is when men are afraid of the light.

    Ignorance, the root and the stem of every evil.

  • Aristotle: Republics decline into democracies and democracies degenerate into despotisms.

Philip of macedon alexander the great
Philip of Macedon & DemocracyAlexander the Great

Alexander the great
Alexander the Great Democracy

  • 359 BCE – Philip II came to throne of Macedonia

  • 337 BCE – He temporarily united Greece expect for Sparta

  • Aristotle became Alexander’s tutor

  • 336 BCE Philip assassinated at daughter’s wedding (Pausanias – hired by Olympia/Alexander?)

Alexander s plan to create a world empire
Alexander’s Plan to Create a World Empire as far as the Indus River

  • 1. found new cities as cultural centers -Hellenized people, they accepted Greek culture

  • 2. Merge Macedonians & Persians into one ruling race

  • 3. Be considered a divine monarch – a god king

  • Break-up of Empire as far as the Indus River

  • 1. Antigonus ruled Macedonia

  • 2. Ptolemy - Egypt

  • 3. Seleucus - Syria

Hellenism 323 31 bce
Hellenism (323-31 BCE) as far as the Indus River

  • Cultural diffusion

  • Blend of Greek, Egyptian, Persian and Indian cultures

  • Realism and movement

  • Balance, harmony, symmetry

  • Alexandria: cosmopolitan city

Philosophers as far as the Indus River

  • Stoicism: show no emotion; divine power controls universe; virtuous life in harmony with natural law; avoid human desires, power & wealth

  • Epicureanism: happiness comes from good conduct and absence of pain; harmony of body & mind

    • Romans: Eat, drink and be merry for tomorrow we shall die!

Math science
Math & Science as far as the Indus River

  • Aristarchus: estimated the sun was at least 300x larger than the earth disproving earth being larger than sun; geocentric

  • Eratosthenes: estimated earth’s circumference (24,662miles), latitude/longitude

  • Archimedes: estimated Pi; Archimedes screw, catapults, laws of levers/pulleys

  • Ptolemy: heliocentric

  • Euclid: compiled geometry textbook The Elements

Library lighthouse of alexandria
Library & Lighthouse of Alexandria as far as the Indus River

Venus di milo by alexandros of antioch
Venus di Milo as far as the Indus Riverby Alexandros of Antioch?

Winged goddess of victory
Winged Goddess of Victory as far as the Indus River

aka- Nike of Samothrace

MyMyronron as far as the Indus River

Socrates drinking hemlock
Socrates drinking hemlock as far as the Indus River