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Ancient Greece. Foundations of Western Civilization Mycenaean Age 2000BCE -1100BCE Hellenic- Classical- 800- 300 BCE Hellenistic-300-BCE-1st cen CE. Questions about Greece. Why is what happened in Greece 2500 years ago so important to us today?

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Ancient greece l.jpg

Ancient Greece

Foundations of Western Civilization

Mycenaean Age 2000BCE -1100BCE

Hellenic- Classical- 800- 300 BCE

Hellenistic-300-BCE-1st cen CE


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Questions about Greece

  • Why is what happened in Greece 2500 years ago so important to us today?

  • What foundations were formed by the Ancient Greeks?

  • Who were these people people whose legends and myths are still alive?


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Geographical Considerations

  • hills and mountains

  • a few plain regions

  • jagged coast line

  • NO river valley

  • Natural to look to the sea for transportation

  • Difficult to have political unity


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Early Greeks2000-800 BCE

  • Mycenaeans connected to Crete-oldest city in Europe, fortress with lion gate-later GCS thought built by gods

  • Dark Ages 1100-750 had an invasion from the North by Dorians- lost writing, fine craftwork, pottery, became isolated

  • Late in time period- adopted Phoenician alphabet, and iron use- expanded to Ionia and islands


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Importance of HomerGreek Identity

  • Looked back to glorious age-connected past with stories of heroes and gods

  • Unified values- courage and honor

  • Stories of Odyssey, Iliad (p 81Odysseus)

  • Never thought there was a Troy Schliemann in 1875 uncovered nine cities- sim to Greek city states (picture p80)


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Age of Expansion 700-500 BCE

  • Sailed all over the Mediterranean

  • Spread what they knew but picked up

    • coinage from Lydia

    • alphabet from Phoenicians

    • developed new classes of merchants and artisans

    • famous for Greek pottery


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Athens- more freedom (various forms)

crisis of land led to reforms by Solon

gradual increase in influence of the citizens (men with property)

Sparta- aggressive toward neighbors

slave labor imp

military important

rigid lifestyle

pattern did not encourage ingenuity

or independent thought

The Polis (city state)sense of common interest


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Classical Greece 500-325BCEGolden Age in History (ch9)

  • Political- beginnings of democracy Age of Pericles 464-429 said the world will marvel at us

  • Intellectual First historians,

    • Father of Medicine- Hippocrates

    • Mathematicians

    • Philosophers- basis for all others(Plato-cave p90)

  • Building- Parthenon (p94) Paestum (p96)


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Persian War

  • Persia largest empire of the time

  • 543 conquered Asia Minor, Gk city states rebelled in Ionia 499

  • 490 First phase, ferried 40,00 men to Marathon, surprised by Athenians

    • 26 mile race to Athens to tell news

  • 480-78 Second Xerxes , 150,000 land bridge

  • Thermopylae 480 Spartan Platea and Salamis Victory! (NIKE)


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Peloponnesian War

  • Cause- Delian League formed and dominated by Athens

  • NO way to withdraw. Corinth asks Sparta for help

  • Pericles (p85) declares war defeated by plague, and Sparta

    • navy in Sicily defeated, Persia helps Sparta

    • Pericles dies- Athens has walls torn down

    • city states remain divided


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Alexander the Great (ch 10)

  • Chapter 8 ends with defeat of city states by Phillip of Macedon ta Battle of Chaeronea. Phillip assassinated

  • Alexander 336-323

    • student of Aristotle- revered Greek accomplishments

    • spread the empire and defeated the Persians-

    • follow path to Asia Minor, Tyre, Egypt to Persia(p99)

    • amazing accomplishments - Indus Valley

    • inspired followers- died in Babylon 33


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Hellenistic Greece(Ch10)

  • Alexander establishes 60 Alexandrias

  • Mix of Greek and eastern culture-intermarriage

  • Art and sculpture amazing- shows movement

  • Science advanced- p (104)

  • The world has never been the same!


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