Anabolic Exercise for Health
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Anabolic Exercise for Health. Presented by: Dr. Robert Newton Foundation Professor in Exercise Science Edith Cowan University.

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Anabolic Exercise for Health

Presented by:

Dr. Robert Newton

Foundation Professor in Exercise Science

Edith Cowan University


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Physical Inactivity and Chronic Disease

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Chronic Disease we know of no single intervention with greater promise than physical exercise to reduce the risk of virtually all chronic diseases simultaneously”

  • slow progress, long continuance

  • individual crosses threshold - ‘‘clinical horizon’’ to manifest

  • mechanisms underlying active long before outwardly affected

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Cost of Chronic Disease

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Examples of Major Chronic Diseases

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Only fighting half of the battle: being reactive instead of proactive

  • Medical research and treatment is focused almost entirely on secondary and tertiary prevention

  • Primary prevention is cheaper, more effective, and far less painful

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We are programmed for physical activity

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“There is no pharmacological intervention that holds a greater promise of improving health and promoting independence in the elderly than does exercise”

Evans & Campbell, Journal of Nutrition, 1993

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Physical Inactivity and Chronic Disease

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Physical Inactivity and Chronic Disease…2

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  • Adult participation in sufficient physical activity for a health benefit declined from 62% in 1997 to 57% in 2000.

  • Overweight and obesity remains a serious problem, affecting around 65% of men, 45% of women and 22% of children aged 2-17 years.

  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

  • Australia’s Health 2002

Physical Inactivity and Chronic Disease…3

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  • leading cause of death among Australians in 2000 health benefit declined from 62% in 1997 to 57% in 2000.

  • 49,741 deaths or 39% of all deaths.

  • coronary heart disease 53%

  • stroke 25%

  • heart failure 5%

  • peripheral vascular disease 5%

  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

  • Australia’s Health 2002

Cardiovascular Disease in Australia

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How important is physical activity? health benefit declined from 62% in 1997 to 57% in 2000.

image from http://www.cotavic.org.au/ “Living Longer Living Stronger”

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  • Loss of muscle mass and function health benefit declined from 62% in 1997 to 57% in 2000.

  • 60% of over 80yrs

  • Anabolic exercise most effective strategy to prevent or reverse sarcopenia

Sarcopenia

image from http://www.cotavic.org.au/

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  • nutrition (under-nutrition and lack of vitamin D) health benefit declined from 62% in 1997 to 57% in 2000.

  • decreased hormone levels (e.g growth hormone, testosterone)

  • reduced physical activity particularly high intensity

  • loss of nerves that innervate the muscles

Causes of Sarcopenia

image from http://www.cotavic.org.au/

Grounds, M.D. Biogerontology, 2002

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  • Diabetes is the world's fastest growing disease health benefit declined from 62% in 1997 to 57% in 2000.

  • It's Australia's sixth leading cause of death

  • Over one million Australians have it — but 50% are as yet unaware

  • Every 10 minutes someone is diagnosed with diabetes

Diabetes

http://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/

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  • Age-specific prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance, 1999-2000

  • Age (years) Men% Women%

  • 25–34 2.1 4.9

  • 35–44 4.8 8.5

  • 45–54 8.4 11.2

  • 55–64 14.8 15.2

  • 65–74 20.4 22.9

  • 75+ 25.5 20.7

  • Source: Dunstan et al. 2001.

  • Metabolic stage between normal and diabetes

  • Risk factor for Type 2 diabetes

  • Also greater risk of heart disease

  • Much higher in physically inactive and obese

  • Improved with physical activity and weight reduction

Impaired Glucose Tolerance

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  • “In addition to controlling weight, physical activity also improves the body’s sensitivity to insulin, helping to lower blood sugar.”

  • “Even a single bout of vigorous physical activity will have an immediate effect on insulin sensitivity.”

  • Australian Institute of Health and Welfare

  • Australia’s Health 2002

Impaired Glucose Tolerance

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  • Exercise improves insulin resistance improves the body’s sensitivity to insulin, helping to lower blood sugar.”

  • Beneficial for preventing and treating type 2 diabetes

  • Aerobic exercise hindered in older, obese, co-morbid patients

  • Anabolic exercise safe and effective

Resistance Exercise and Diabetes

Willey and Singh. Diabetes Care, 2003

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Physical Activity and Diabetes

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  • Evidence is conclusive could prevent 30-50% of new cases of Type 2 diabetes

  • Lifelong physical activity has strong preventative effect

  • Anabolic exercise - greatest efficacy

  • Example*

    • 1 year study of strength and endurance training

    • 1.3% increase BMD in training group

    • 1.2% decrease for control

Anabolic Exercise and Osteoporosis

*Kemmler et al. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 2003

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Anabolic Exercise and Osteoarthritis

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Anabolic Exercise and Rheumatoid Arthritis walking

  • Feasible and safe in selected patients with well-controlled RA

  • Significant improvements in strength, pain, and fatigue Without exacerbating disease activity or joint pain.

Hakkinen, A. 2002 and 2003

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Physical activity and cancer risk

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  • Disease and treatment usually results in debilitating fatigue

  • Research examining exercise programs pre surgery and/or during treatment

    • Increased vigor

    • Reduced muscle and bone loss

    • Enhanced immune function

    • Possible increase survival

    • Positive psychological influences

  • Prostate and Breast cancer

  • More accurate detection

Exercise for Cancer Patients

Anabolic Exercise

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Mental Illness, Dementia, Alzheimer’s fatigue

  • Physical inactivity - risk factor

  • Mechanism unknown

  • Physical activity – strong positive effect

  • Slows progression of disease

  • Ageing population – dementia will become major problem

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Epidemiology

McDowell, I. Alzheimer's disease: insights from epidemiology. Aging-Clinical & Experimental Research. 13:143-162, 2001.

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Cholesterol physical activity appears beneficial, as does a diet with high levels of vitamins B6, B12 and folate, while red wine in moderate quantities also appears protective

  • Exercise and nutrition demonstrated effects on:

    • Lowered TC

    • Lowered LDL-C

    • Increased HDL-C

    • Lowered triglycerides

Scranton, R., et al. Predictors of 14-year changes in the total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in men. American Heart Journal. 147(6):1033-1038, 2004

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Hypertension physical activity appears beneficial, as does a diet with high levels of vitamins B6, B12 and folate, while red wine in moderate quantities also appears protective

  • Exercise can lower BP in patients with stage 1 and 2 essential hypertension

  • Average reduction in BP is 10.5 mm Hg for systolic and 7.6 mm Hg for diastolic BP

Kokkinos, P. F., P. Narayan, and V. Papademetriou. Exercise as hypertension therapy. Cardiology Clinics. 19:507-516, 2001.

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Obesity and Overweight physical activity appears beneficial, as does a diet with high levels of vitamins B6, B12 and folate, while red wine in moderate quantities also appears protective

  • Combination of exercise and dietary modification is the only effective long-term strategy for controlling body weight

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  • accidental falls for > 65 years $83 million in 2001/02 physical activity appears beneficial, as does a diet with high levels of vitamins B6, B12 and folate, while red wine in moderate quantities also appears protective

  • 1.5 % of health expenditure in WA

  • cost per fall was $6,500

  • Personal and family cost much larger

Falls - Cost

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  • Multifactorial physical activity appears beneficial, as does a diet with high levels of vitamins B6, B12 and folate, while red wine in moderate quantities also appears protective

  • Range of physical activity interventions proven successful

  • Anabolic exercise reverse loss of muscle strength and slows bone loss – critical function

Falls - Prevention

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  • Must reverse our concept of “gentle exercise” physical activity appears beneficial, as does a diet with high levels of vitamins B6, B12 and folate, while red wine in moderate quantities also appears protective

  • To maintain function, reduce chronic disease, enhance quality of life – MUST simulate pre-industrial revolution!

  • Ageism! We need to change our perceptions

Deficiencies of some physical activity programs for seniors

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Life-Long Prevention Strategy

image from http://www.cotavic.org.au/

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Fighting Fit?? exercise is crucial to maintaining optimal structure and function into old age

http://www.ucomics.com/closetohome/2004/03/07/

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Edith Cowan University exercise is crucial to maintaining optimal structure and function into old age

International enrolments exceed 3,000 with students originating from more than 80 countries.

ECU's origins go back to 1902 when it began as a teaching college. Today it is Western Australia's second largest university with almost 23,000 students.

The University has three metropolitan campuses in Churchlands, Mount Lawley and Joondalup and a regional campus in Bunbury, a city 200kms south of Perth.

More than 330 courses are offered through the five faculties: Business and Public Management; Computing, Health and Science; Communications and Creative Industries, which incorporates the Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts; Community Services, Education and Social Sciences; and the Faculty of Regional Professional Studies

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Sport and Exercise Science exercise is crucial to maintaining optimal structure and function into old age

  • Certificates offered

    • Personal Training

    • Women’s Wellness

  • Degrees offered

    • Bachelor of Science (Sports Science)

    • Masters and PhD by research

    • Masters of Exercise Science (Strength and Conditioning)

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  • ECU Wellness exercise is crucial to maintaining optimal structure and function into old age

  • Training and certification

  • Professional development

  • On-going support

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Thank You exercise is crucial to maintaining optimal structure and function into old age

www.ecu.edu.au

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