Anabolic steroids
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ANABOLIC STEROIDS. Members James Robin Cudiamat Francis Harmon Libo -on Rodel Pedragosa Neil Villaronte. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nzPfGvIGI14. BRIEF INTRODUCTION. Anabolic Steroids. Class of steroid hormones related to the male hormone – testosterone

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Anabolic steroids

ANABOLIC STEROIDS

Members

James Robin Cudiamat

Francis Harmon Libo-on

RodelPedragosa

Neil Villaronte


Brief introduction

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nzPfGvIGI14

BRIEF INTRODUCTION


Anabolic steroids

Anabolic Steroids

  • Class of steroid hormones related to the male hormone – testosterone

  • Increase protein synthesis within cells whiche results in growth of muscle

  • Also have androgenic properties which include the development and maintenance of males characteristics

  • Have both medical and sport performance uses


Anabolic steroids

Anabolic Steroids

  • AS have been modified many times to maximize the anabolic effects and minimize the androgenic effects


Anabolic steroids

Anabolic Steroids

  • All AS possess both anabolic and androgenic properties

  • Anabolic effect dose dependent (300mg per week required)


Anabolic steroids

History

  • 1931 – male hormone androstenone isolated

  • 1934 – androstenone synthesized

  • 1935 – testosterone identified and synthesized

  • 1937 – clinical trials on humans with testosterone began


Anabolic steroids

History

  • WWII – German scientist synthesized other anabolic steroids and experimented on concentration camp inmates to treat chronic wasting

  • Also given to German soldiers hoping to increase their aggression

  • Adolf Hitler rumored to take anabolic steroids


Anabolic steroids

History

  • 1972 – study no difference in performance enhancement in participants compared to ones given placebo

  • Remained unchallenged for 18 years

  • Poor study with inconsistent controls and insignificant doses

  • 2001 – study showed clear increas in muscle mass and decrease in fat with high doses of anabolic steroids


Anabolic steroid effects

ANABOLIC STEROID EFFECTS


Anabolic steroids

Anabolic Effects

  • Two different but overlapping effects

  • Promote cell growth

  • Increase in protein synthesis, appetite, bone remodeling and growth and production of red blood cells

  • Increase the size of muscle fibers leading to increase in muscle mass and strength

  • Decrease the amount of fat in muscle


Anabolic steroids

  • Androgenic effects

  • Androgenic (virilizing) – development and maintenance of male characteristics:

  • Increased growth of pubic, beard, chest and limb hair

  • Enlargement of vocal chords

  • Increased libido

  • Suppression of natural sex hormones


Anabolic steroids

  • Adverse effects

  • Elevated blood pressure

  • Increase in LDL cholesterol and decrease HDL

  • Increase risk CV disease and coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, and heart attacks


Anabolic steroids

  • Adverse effects

  • Accelerate the rate of premature baldness for male and female

  • Appearance of acne- stimulates the sebaceous glands

  • Liver damage (cancer) – increase demand on liver as oral steroids are changed


Anabolic steroids

Adverse Effects

  • Tendon rupture has been linked to AS

  • Stiffer and less elastic tendon

  • Probably tendon does not adapt as fast


Anabolic steroids

  • Gender Specific effects

  • Gynecoastia – development of brest tissues in males

  • Temporary infertility (decreased production of sperm)

  • Testicular atrophy (caused by decrease levels in natural testosterone)


Adverse effects

Adverse Effects

  • Most side effects are dose dependent

  • Blood pressure elevation

  • Increase the risks of Cardio Vascular disease, coronary artery disease, arrythmia and any disease related to the heart.

  • Accelerates the rate of baldness (male and female)


Adverse effects1

Adverse Effects

  • Acne-stimulates the sebaceous glands

  • Liver Complications-increased demand on liver functions

  • Tendon rupture(stiff and less elastic tendons)


Female specific effects

Female Specific Effects

  • Increase in body hair

  • Male-pattern baldness

  • Deepened Voice

  • Enlarged Clitoris

  • Unpredictable menstrual cycle

  • Affects fetal development during pregnancy


Teenage adolescent users effect

Teenage/Adolescent users effect

  • Halted growth

  • Accelerated puberty which could cause premature skeletal maturation before growth spurt

  • Premature sexual development


Behavioral effects

Behavioral Effects

  • Uncontrolabe mood swings

  • Roid Rage(Aggression)

  • Depression(withdrawal from use)

  • Irritability

  • Paranoia

    * Behavioral effects are similar to those of drug addiction


Biochemical mechanisms

Biochemical Mechanisms

Anabolic Steroids affect muscle mass by:

1. Increasing the production of proteins

2. Reduce recovery time by blocking the effects of cortisol. (reduces fatigue/faster recovery)


Biochemical mechanisms1

Biochemical Mechanisms

  • Steroid Hormones interact with cells by binding to receptor proteins.

  • After binding,

    proteins move into

    cell nucleus and alter

    the expression of

    genes or activate

    other processes in

    the cell(protein

    synthesis)


Medical uses

Medical Uses

  • Bone Marrow Stimulation- Anemia

  • Supplement for patients with hormone deficiency(Hormone Replacement Therapy)

  • Puberty for delayed Adolescents

  • Used for recovery of muscle tissue


Non medical use and abuse

Non-medical use and abuse

  • Extemely difficult to determine what percentage of use in the population

  • Usually middle class, heterosexual men with a median age of 25

  • 2006 study – 78% noncompetitive bodybuilders and non-athletes (cosmetic)

  • 13 % reported unsafe injection practices (needle sharing)


Non medical use and abuse1

Non-medical use and abuse

  • Users often stereo-typed as uneducated or “muscle heads”

  • 1998 study showed steroid users to be the most educated drug users out of all users of controlled substances

  • Research their product more than any other group


Administration

Administration

  • 3 forms of Anabolic Steroids Administration:

  • Oral – most convenient

    (dangerous – liver)

  • Injectable – intramuscular not intravenous (HIV and Hepatitis)

  • Transdermal – self adhesive skin patches


Methods of administration

Methods of Administration

  • Athletes who take AS do so typically during the active years of the careers

  • They combine multiple steroid forms (oral and injectable), a practice called “stacking”

  • The drug dosage is progessively increased (“pyramiding”) during a 4 to 18 week cycle, including a drug-free period between drug regimens (4-6 weeks).

  • The drug quantity far exceeds the recommended medical dose (200X)

  • The athlete then progressively reduces the drug dosage in the months prior to competition (to avoid detection)


Methods of administration1

Methods of Administration

  • The cycling of steroids coincides with competition

  • Many athletes use the training model – “Periodization”

  • An athlete with a yearly training program (macrocycle)subdivides the year into phases called mesocycles (3 months)

  • As competition nears, training volume gradually decreases while training intensity increases

  • Steroid use coincides with the mesocycles, with the goal of achieving maximum strength and size at competition


Oral anabolic steroids

Oral Anabolic Steroids

  • 17 – alpha methyl testosterone (Android)

  • 17 – alpha ethyl testosterone (Maxibolin)

  • 1 –methyl testosterone (Primobolan)

  • Androstenediol (“Andro” food supplements)

  • Androstenedione

  • Dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)


Injectable anabolic steroids

Injectable Anabolic Steroids

  • 19-nortesterone ester derivatives (Durabolin)

  • Testosterone ester derivatives (Oreton)

  • Testosterone cypionate derivatives (Virilon)

  • Boldenone

  • Stanozolol (Winstrol) oral form as well


Minimization of side effects

Minimization of Side Effects

  • Several techniques to minimize side effects both during cycles and post cycle

  • Increase Cardiovascular exercise to counter act effects to counter effects on left ventricle

  • Estrogen receptor modulators to reduce effect of aromatisation of steroid hormones (tamoxifen) reduce gynecomastia


Post cycle therapy

Post Cycle Therapy

  • “PCT” – takes place after each cycle to combat the natural testosteronesuppression and restore proper function of numerous glands

  • Typically consists of combination of the following drugs:

  • Clomiphene or tamoxifen (Primary PCT drug)

  • Anastrozole – aromatase inhibitor

  • HCG (Human Chorionic Gonadotropin) – restore hormonal balance


Post cycle therapy1

Post Cycle Therapy

  • Finasteride (Propecia) - reduces the conversion of testosterone to DHT (Dihydrotestosterone)

    – high rate of alopecia

  • The drug is useless in cases in which the steroid is not converted into a more androgenic derivative


Legal status

Legal Status

  • Varies from country to country

  • U.S. – Schedule III controlled substance (required prescription, possession without Rx. federal crime punishable to 7 years)

  • Canada – Schedule IV (obtaining or selling punishable for up 18 months), possession not punishable

  • Also illegal without Rx. In Australia, Argentina, Brazil and Portugal

  • Legal in Mexico and Thailand


U s legislation of a s

U.S legislation of A.S

Interest and debate after 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul following controversy of Ben Johnson

AS added to Schedule III of the Controlled Substances Act in the Anabolic Control Act of 1990

Prohormones or “Designer Steroids”not included (Androstenedione)


Prohormones

Prohormones

  • In 1994, the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act was signed into law.

  • This act classified substances derived from natural sources as food supplements and made many drugs such as prohormones available over the counter.

  • Thus these substances are not regulated under the same rules and regulations by the FDA.(Loop Hole)

  • This can result in the dosages and actual quality of these substances to be in question as they are sold to the consumer

  • Amended in 2004(Androstenedione)


Status in sports

Status in Sports

  • AS are being banned by all major sporting bodies:

  • IOC

  • NBA

  • NHL

  • MLB

  • NCAA


Status in sports1

Status in Sports

  • Testing in Texas high schools to start this year(UIL)

  • Expensive

  • Jurisprudence

  • Normal T:ET ratio 1.3:1

  • 1 in 1000 men ratio of 4:1

  • Positive test result 6:1


Status in sports2

Status in Sports

  • For testosterone the definition of positive depends on an adverse analytical finding(pos. result) based on any reliable analytical method) e.g. IRMS,GCMS,CIS) which shows that the testosterone is of exogenous origin, or if the ratio of the total concentration of testosterone to that of eitestosterone in the urine is greater than 6:1, unless there is evidence that this ratio is due to a physiological or pathogolical condition.


Illegal trade

Illegal Trade

  • The majority of AS are obtained illegaly through black market trade

  • Usually manufactured in other countries and smuggled across borders

  • Smuggling usually done in conjunction w/other illegal drugs

  • Organized crime is involved


Counterfeit drugs

Counterfeit Drugs

  • Significant health hazard

  • Computer and scanning technology as made it to copy labels

  • Product could contain anything(Vegetable oil to toxic substances)

  • Users have died of injecting unknown substances in their body

  • Products also diluted to maximize profits


Production and distribution

Production and Distribution

  • AS are either manufactured by legitimate pharmaceutical compaies or undergroud laboratories

  • In the 1990’s most U.S. producers stopped making and marketing AS

  • Eastern Europe still produce AS in quantity (most medical grade AS sold illegally in North America)

  • Many illegal AS are veterinary grade(produced and handled in cruder and less sterile fashion)


Production and distribution1

Production and Distribution

  • AS can be obtained from several sources

  • Sold at gyms and competitions

  • Illegal drug dealers

  • Mail order(magazines)

  • Internet(websites posing as oversea pharmacies)


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