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1. Chapter 13 Section 4 The Church Wields Power
3. Church Structures The Church established its own organization and power was based on status.
Clergy- different ranks of religious officials.
The Pope headed the Church in Rome.
Local Priests served as the main contact for the community.
4. Religion as a Unifying Force The Church provided Christians with a sense of security.
Sacraments- important religious ceremonies administered by priests.
Sacraments paved the way for religious salvation.
The church served as the unifying force in the daily lives of most people.
5. Church Justice The Church was religious and political.
The Church also created a system of justice for people’s conduct.
Canon Law- the law of the Church.
Excommunication- banishment from the church to wield power over political rulers.
6. The Church and Holy Roman Empire Holy Roman Empire- strongest kingdom that arose after Charlemagne’s death.
Otto the Great- most effective ruler of medieval Germany.
Otto sought help from the clergy to limit the nobles strength and formed a close alliance with the church.
7. Holy Roman Emperor Clashes with the Pope The Church began to resent Otto the Great and the power that he and other kings had over the church.
Lay investiture- a ceremony in which kings and nobles appoint church officials.
The church wanted the right to appoint it’s own clergy, not the government!
Eventually the pope banned lay investiture.
8. Renewed Church Conflicts Under Frederick I Frederick I- first ruler to call his lands the Holy Roman Empire.
His forceful personality and military skills helped him dominate.
He repeatedly invaded rich cities of Italy.
His actions angered the pope.
9. German States Remain Separate Kings after Frederick I tried to revive Charlemagne’s empire.
This led to wars with Italian cities and the Church.
These conflicts were among several reasons why the feudal states did not unify during the Middle Ages.