PSYCHOLOGY 100 January 29/30, 2003 “Lifespan Development” Chapter 11 (continued). Kathy Pichora-Fuller. What Happens as a Person Ages?. Positive Change? Negative Change?. When is a Person “Old(er)”?. Figure 11.7
Stage theories of development. Some theories view development as a relatively continuous process, albeit not as smooth and perfectly linear as depicted on the left. In contrast, stage theories assume that development is marked by major discontinuities (as shown on the right) that bring fundamental, qualitative changes in capabilities or characteristic behavior.Continuity vs Stages
Fountain of Youth
Longevity – Preservation and/or Regeneration of Function
Longitudinal versus cross-sectional research. In a longitudinal study of development between ages 6 and 10, the same children would be observed at 6, again at 8, and again at 10. In a cross-sectional study of the same age span, a group of 6-year-olds, a group of 8-year-olds, and a group of 10-year-olds would be compared simultaneously. Note that data collection could be completed immediately in the cross-sectional study, whereas the longitudinal study would require four years to complete.
Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Studies
Snowdon, D.A., Kemper, S., J.A. Greiner, L.H., Wekstein, D.R., Markesbery, W.R. (1996). Cognitive ability in early life and cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life: Findings from the Nun Study. J American Medical Association, 275, 528-532.
"Use it or lose it."
Age differences in memory are diminished when contextual support is available.
Free recall“What did you learn last week?”
Cued recall“Last week you learned about which two experimental designs?”
Recognition recall“Last week did you learn about cross-sectional and longitudinal designs?”
Sensory and cognitive processing both decline with age: Coincidence or not?
Lindenberger U, Baltes PB. Sensory functioning and intelligence in old age: A strong connection. Psych Aging 1994;9:339-55.
Modular vs Integrated Systems
Schneider BA, Pichora-Fuller MK. Implications of perceptual deterioration for cognitive aging research. In: Craik FIM, Salthouse TA, eds, The Handbook of Aging and Cognition, 2nd ed. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2000; 3: 155-219.
UTM Research: Equating for Perceptual Difficulty during Cognitive Processing to Test the Information Degradation Hypothesishttp://www.erin.utoronto.ca/~w3cihrsc/Cihr/index.htm
Speech Perception in Noise TestPichora-Fuller MK, Schneider BA, Daneman M. How young and old adults listen to and remember speech in noise. J Acoust Soc Am 1995; 97:593-608.
John did not talk about the feast.
The wedding banquet was a feast.
Effect of Simulated Auditory Aging on Working Memory SpanBrown S, Pichora-Fuller MK. Temporal jitter mimics the effects of aging on word identification and word recall in noise. Canadian Acoustics 2000;28:126-128.
Noise and Discourse ComprehensionSchneider BA, Daneman M, Murphy D, Kwong See S. Listening to discourse in distracting settings: The effects of aging. Psych Aging 2000;15:110-125.