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Introduction to Psychology & Its Research Methods PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation. CHAPTER 1. Lecture Overview. Introducing Psychology Origins of Psychology The Science of Psychology Research Methods Tools for Student Success. Introducing Psychology. What is psychology?

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Introduction to Psychology & Its Research Methods

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

CHAPTER 1

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Lecture Overview

  • Introducing Psychology

  • Origins of Psychology

  • The Science of Psychology

  • Research Methods

  • Tools for Student Success

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Introducing Psychology

  • What ispsychology?

    The scientific studyof behavior & mental processes.

  • Psychology focuses on critical thinking& isscientific.

  • Pseudopsychologies(e.g., psychics, mediums)are nonscientific.

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Pause & Reflect: Psychology at Work

  • Psychology helps us scientifically evaluate common beliefs & misconceptions about behavior & mental processes. For example, can you identify which of the beliefs on the following slide are true or false?

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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True or False?

  • In general, we only use about 10% of our brain.

  • Most brain activity stops during sleep.

  • People who threaten suicide seldom follow through with it.

  • Similarity is the best predictor of long-term relationships.

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Answers to These (& Other Common Beliefs) are Found Throughout Psychology in Action (9e)

  • In general, we only use about 10% of our brain.

    • False—(See Chapter 2)

  • Most brain activity stops during sleep.

    • False—(See Chapter 5)

  • People who threaten suicide seldom follow through with it.

    • False—(See Chapter 15)

  • Similarity is the best predictor of long-term relationships.

    • True—(See Chapter 16)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Introducing Psychology: Psychology’s Four Goals Throughout

  • Description: tells “what” occurred

  • Explanation: tells “why” a behavior or mental process occurred

  • Prediction: identifies conditions under which a future behavior or mental process is likely to occur

  • Change: applies psychological knowledge to prevent unwanted behavior or to bring about desired goals

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Biopsychology/ Neuroscience Throughout

Clinical & Counseling Psychology

Cognitive Psychology

Developmental Psychology

Educational & School Psychology

Experimental Psychology

Introducing Psychology: Applying Psychology to Work (Sample Specialties)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Forensic Psychology Throughout

Gender/Cultural Psychology

Health Psychology

Industrial/Organizational Psychology

Social Psychology

Applying Psychology to Work (Sample Specialties Continued)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Careers in Psychology: Percentage of Psychology Degrees by Specialty

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Introducing Psychology: Ethnicities of SpecialtyDoctorate Recipients in Psychology

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Origins of Psychology Specialty

  • Wilhelm Wundt:“father of psychology”

  • Structuralism: sought to identify the basic building blocks, or structures, of the mind through introspection (Titchenerkey leader)

  • Functionalism: studied how the mind functions to adapt organisms to their environment (James key leader)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Psychoanalytic/ Psychodynamic Perspective: Specialtyunconscious processes & unresolved past conflicts (Freud = key founder)

Origins of Psychology (Continued)

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Behavioral Perspective: Specialtyobjective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior (Watson,Pavlov,& Skinner were key figures)

Origins of Psychology (Continued)

B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Origins of Psychology (Continued) Specialty

  • Humanistic Perspective: free will, self-actualization, & a positive, growth-seeking human nature (Rogers&Maslow were key figures)

+

=

Carl Rogers (1902-1987)

Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Cognitive Perspective: Specialtythinking, perceiving, problem solving, memory, language, & information processing

Origins of Psychology (Continued)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Origins of Psychology (Continued) Specialty

  • Neuroscience/ Biopsychology Perspective:genetics & other biological processes in the brain & other parts of the nervous system

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Origins of Psychology (Continued) Specialty

  • Evolutionary Perspective:natural selection, adaptation, & evolution

  • Sociocultural Perspective:social interaction & cultural determinants

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Origins of Psychology: One Unifying Theme of Modern Psychology

  • Biopsychosocial model: combines all seven major perspectives

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Why do psychologists & other scientists need multiple perspectives? (One possible answer appears on the next slide.)

Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Multiple perspectives allow psychologists to better understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.

Do See a Vase &/0r Two Faces?

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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The Science of Psychology understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.

  • Basic Research: conducted to advance scientific knowledge

  • Applied Research: designed to solve practical problems

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Pause & Reflect: Assessment understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.

  • Is this an example of basic or applied research?

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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The Scientific Method understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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The Science of Psychology: understand research & complex behavior & mental processes. Ethical Guidelines

  • Ethical Guidelines for Human Research Participants:

    • Informed consent

    • Voluntary participation

    • Restricted use of deception

    • Debriefing

    • Confidentiality

    • Alternative activities

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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The Science of Psychology: understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.Ethical Guidelines (Continued)

  • Rights of Nonhuman Participants: Advocates believe nonhuman research offers significant scientific benefits. Opponents question these benefits & suggest nonhuman animals cannot giveinformed consent.

  • General Guidelines: Psychologists must maintain high standards for both human & nonhuman animal research.

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Pause & Reflect: understand research & complex behavior & mental processes. Assessment

  • What are the four major goals of psychology?

  • The _____ perspective focuses onnatural selection, adaptation, & evolution.

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Research Methods understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.

  • Four key research methods:

    • Experimental

    • Descriptive

    • Correlational

    • Biological

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.

Art of Prediction


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Four Key Research Methods (Continued) understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.

1. Experimental Research: carefully controlled scientific procedure that manipulates variables to determine cause & effect

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Research Methods—Experimental (Continued) understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.

  • Key features of an experiment:

    • Independent variable (factor that is manipulated) versus dependent variable (factor that is measured)

    • Experimental group (receives treatment) versus control group (receives no treatment)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Research Methods—Experimental (Continued) understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.

  • Potentialresearcherproblems:

    • Experimenter bias(researcher influences the research results in the expected direction)

    • Ethnocentrism(believing one's culture is typical of all cultures)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Research Methods—Experimental (Continued) understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.

  • Potentialparticipantproblems:

    • Sample bias:research participants are unrepresentative of the larger population

    • Participant bias:research participants are influenced by the researcher or experimental conditions

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Research Methods—Experimental (Continued) understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Research Methods—Descriptive understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.

  • 2. Descriptive Research: observes & records behavior without producing causal explanations

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Research Methods—Descriptive understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.

Three types of descriptive research:

  • Naturalistic Observation:observation & recording of behavior in natural state or habitat

  • Survey:assessment of a sample or population

  • Case Study:in-depth study of a single participant

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Pause & Reflect: Psychology at Work understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.

  • What is the advantage of studying psychological research methods like naturalistic observation? (One possible answer appears on the next slide.)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Do You Get it? Studying Psychology Helps You “Get” the Underlying Humor of Many Cartoons

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Research Methods—Correlational Underlying Humor of Many Cartoons

3. Correlational Research: observes or measures (without directly manipulating) two or more variables to find relationshipsbetween them

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Positive Correlation: Underlying Humor of Many Cartoons two variables move (or vary) in the samedirection—either up or down

Research Methods—Correlational

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Negative Correlation: Underlying Humor of Many Cartoons two variables move (or vary) in the oppositedirection—either up or down

Research Methods—Correlational

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Zero Correlation: Underlying Humor of Many Cartoonsno relationship between two variables (when one variable increases, the other can increase,decrease, or stay the same)

Research Methods—Correlational

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Research Methods—Correlational Underlying Humor of Many Cartoons

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Research Methods—Correlational Underlying Humor of Many Cartoons

  • Can you see why correlation can never show cause & effect?

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Research Methods—Biological Underlying Humor of Many Cartoons

4. Biological Research: scientific studies of the brain & other parts of the nervous system

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Pause & Reflect: Underlying Humor of Many Cartoons Assessment

  • Why is an experiment the only way we can determine cause & effect?

  • What is the difference between a positive correlation & a negative correlation?

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Tools for Student Success Underlying Humor of Many Cartoons

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Tools for Student Success (Continued) Underlying Humor of Many Cartoons

  • Four major tools:

    • Active Reading (SQ4R)

    • Time Management (setting up a realistic study, social, & work schedule)

    • Grade Improvement (note taking, study habits, test-taking tips)

    • Additional Resources (instructors, classmates, study groups, etc.)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Can You Identify the Real U.S. Penny? Underlying Humor of Many Cartoons

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Tools for Student Success: The Importance of Time Management Underlying Humor of Many Cartoons

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Pause & Reflect: Underlying Humor of Many Cartoons Critical Thinking

  • Can you see how the lack of active reading or careful studying helps explain why most people cannot easily identify the actual U.S. penny despite having seen it thousands of times?

  • Which of the four major “Tools for Student Success” do you plan to work on to improve your academic performance?

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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Introduction to Psychology & Its Research Methods Underlying Humor of Many Cartoons

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

End of CHAPTER 1

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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