Introduction to Psychology Its Research Methods PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation
Download

Introduction to Psychology Its Research Methods PowerPoint Lecture Not...

Advertisement
Download Presentation
Comments
gaurav
From:
|  
(123) |   (0) |   (0)
Views: 389 | Added: 06-06-2012
Rate Presentation: 0 0
Description:

Introduction to Psychology Its Research Methods PowerPoi...

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only and may not be sold or licensed nor shared on other sites. SlideServe reserves the right to change this policy at anytime. While downloading, If for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.











- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -




1. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Psychology & Its Research Methods PowerPoint ? Lecture Notes Presentation

2. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Lecture Overview Introducing Psychology Origins of Psychology The Science of Psychology Research Methods Tools for Student Success

3. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Introducing Psychology What is psychology? The scientific study of behavior & mental processes. Psychology focuses on critical thinking & is scientific. Pseudopsychologies (e.g., psychics, mediums) are nonscientific.

4. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Psychology helps us scientifically evaluate common beliefs & misconceptions about behavior & mental processes. For example, can you identify which of the beliefs on the following slide are true or false?

5. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 True or False? In general, we only use about 10% of our brain. Most brain activity stops during sleep. People who threaten suicide seldom follow through with it. Similarity is the best predictor of long-term relationships.

6. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Answers to These (& Other Common Beliefs) are Found Throughout Psychology in Action (9e) In general, we only use about 10% of our brain. False?(See Chapter 2) Most brain activity stops during sleep. False?(See Chapter 5) People who threaten suicide seldom follow through with it. False?(See Chapter 15) Similarity is the best predictor of long-term relationships. True?(See Chapter 16)

7. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Introducing Psychology: Psychology?s Four Goals Description: tells ?what? occurred Explanation: tells ?why? a behavior or mental process occurred Prediction: identifies conditions under which a future behavior or mental process is likely to occur Change: applies psychological knowledge to prevent unwanted behavior or to bring about desired goals

8. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Introducing Psychology: Applying Psychology to Work (Sample Specialties) Biopsychology/ Neuroscience Clinical & Counseling Psychology Cognitive Psychology Developmental Psychology Educational & School Psychology Experimental Psychology

9. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Applying Psychology to Work (Sample Specialties Continued) Forensic Psychology Gender/Cultural Psychology Health Psychology Industrial/Organizational Psychology Social Psychology

10. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Careers in Psychology: Percentage of Psychology Degrees by Specialty

11. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Introducing Psychology: Ethnicities of Doctorate Recipients in Psychology

12. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Origins of Psychology Wilhelm Wundt: ?father of psychology? Structuralism: sought to identify the basic building blocks, or structures, of the mind through introspection (Titchener key leader) Functionalism: studied how the mind functions to adapt organisms to their environment (James key leader)

13. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Origins of Psychology (Continued) Psychoanalytic/ Psychodynamic Perspective: unconscious processes & unresolved past conflicts (Freud = key founder)

14. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Origins of Psychology (Continued) Behavioral Perspective: objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior (Watson, Pavlov, & Skinner were key figures)

15. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Origins of Psychology (Continued) Humanistic Perspective: free will, self-actualization, & a positive, growth-seeking human nature (Rogers & Maslow were key figures)

16. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Origins of Psychology (Continued) Cognitive Perspective: thinking, perceiving, problem solving, memory, language, & information processing

17. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Origins of Psychology (Continued) Neuroscience/ Biopsychology Perspective: genetics & other biological processes in the brain & other parts of the nervous system

18. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Origins of Psychology (Continued) Evolutionary Perspective: natural selection, adaptation, & evolution Sociocultural Perspective: social interaction & cultural determinants

19. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Origins of Psychology: One Unifying Theme of Modern Psychology Biopsychosocial model: combines all seven major perspectives

20. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Why do psychologists & other scientists need multiple perspectives? (One possible answer appears on the next slide.)

21. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Do See a Vase &/0r Two Faces? Multiple perspectives allow psychologists to better understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.

22. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 The Science of Psychology Basic Research: conducted to advance scientific knowledge Applied Research: designed to solve practical problems

23. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Pause & Reflect: Assessment Is this an example of basic or applied research?

24. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 The Scientific Method

25. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 The Science of Psychology: Ethical Guidelines Ethical Guidelines for Human Research Participants: Informed consent Voluntary participation Restricted use of deception Debriefing Confidentiality Alternative activities

26. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 The Science of Psychology: Ethical Guidelines (Continued) Rights of Nonhuman Participants: Advocates believe nonhuman research offers significant scientific benefits. Opponents question these benefits & suggest nonhuman animals cannot give informed consent. General Guidelines: Psychologists must maintain high standards for both human & nonhuman animal research.

27. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Pause & Reflect: Assessment What are the four major goals of psychology? The _____ perspective focuses on natural selection, adaptation, & evolution.

28. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Four key research methods: Experimental Descriptive Correlational Biological Research Methods

29. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

30. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Four Key Research Methods (Continued) 1. Experimental Research: carefully controlled scientific procedure that manipulates variables to determine cause & effect

31. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Research Methods?Experimental (Continued) Key features of an experiment: Independent variable (factor that is manipulated) versus dependent variable (factor that is measured) Experimental group (receives treatment) versus control group (receives no treatment)

32. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Does TV increase aggression? Only an experiment can determine cause & effect.

33. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Research Methods?Experimental (Continued) Potential researcher problems: Experimenter bias (researcher influences the research results in the expected direction) Ethnocentrism (believing one's culture is typical of all cultures)

34. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Research Methods?Experimental (Continued) Potential participant problems: Sample bias: research participants are unrepresentative of the larger population Participant bias: research participants are influenced by the researcher or experimental conditions

35. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Research Methods?Experimental (Continued)

36. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Research Methods?Descriptive 2. Descriptive Research: observes & records behavior without producing causal explanations

37. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Research Methods?Descriptive Three types of descriptive research: Naturalistic Observation: observation & recording of behavior in natural state or habitat Survey: assessment of a sample or population Case Study: in-depth study of a single participant

38. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 What is the advantage of studying psychological research methods like naturalistic observation? (One possible answer appears on the next slide.)

39. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Do You Get it? Studying Psychology Helps You ?Get? the Underlying Humor of Many Cartoons

40. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Research Methods?Correlational 3. Correlational Research: observes or measures (without directly manipulating) two or more variables to find relationships between them

41. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Research Methods?Correlational Positive Correlation: two variables move (or vary) in the same direction?either up or down

42. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Research Methods?Correlational Negative Correlation: two variables move (or vary) in the opposite direction?either up or down

43. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Research Methods?Correlational Zero Correlation: no relationship between two variables (when one variable increases, the other can increase, decrease, or stay the same)

44. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Research Methods?Correlational

45. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Research Methods?Correlational Can you see why correlation can never show cause & effect?

46. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Research Methods?Biological 4. Biological Research: scientific studies of the brain & other parts of the nervous system

47. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Pause & Reflect: Assessment Why is an experiment the only way we can determine cause & effect? What is the difference between a positive correlation & a negative correlation?

48. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Tools for Student Success

49. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Tools for Student Success (Continued) Four major tools: Active Reading (SQ4R) Time Management (setting up a realistic study, social, & work schedule) Grade Improvement (note taking, study habits, test-taking tips) Additional Resources (instructors, classmates, study groups, etc.)

50. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Can You Identify the Real U.S. Penny?

51. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Tools for Student Success: The Importance of Time Management

52. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking Can you see how the lack of active reading or careful studying helps explain why most people cannot easily identify the actual U.S. penny despite having seen it thousands of times? Which of the four major ?Tools for Student Success? do you plan to work on to improve your academic performance?

53. ? John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010 End of CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Psychology & Its Research Methods PowerPoint ? Lecture Notes Presentation


Other Related Presentations

Copyright © 2014 SlideServe. All rights reserved | Powered By DigitalOfficePro