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Introduction to Psychology & Its Research Methods PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation. CHAPTER 1. Lecture Overview. Introducing Psychology Origins of Psychology The Science of Psychology Research Methods Tools for Student Success. Introducing Psychology. What is psychology?
CHAPTER 1

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Slide 1

Introduction to Psychology & Its Research Methods

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

CHAPTER 1

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 2

Lecture Overview

  • Introducing Psychology

  • Origins of Psychology

  • The Science of Psychology

  • Research Methods

  • Tools for Student Success

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 3

Introducing Psychology

  • What ispsychology?

    The scientific studyof behavior & mental processes.

  • Psychology focuses on critical thinking& isscientific.

  • Pseudopsychologies(e.g., psychics, mediums)are nonscientific.

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 4

Pause & Reflect: Psychology at Work

  • Psychology helps us scientifically evaluate common beliefs & misconceptions about behavior & mental processes. For example, can you identify which of the beliefs on the following slide are true or false?

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 5

True or False?

  • In general, we only use about 10% of our brain.

  • Most brain activity stops during sleep.

  • People who threaten suicide seldom follow through with it.

  • Similarity is the best predictor of long-term relationships.

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 6

Answers to These (& Other Common Beliefs) are Found Throughout Psychology in Action (9e)

  • In general, we only use about 10% of our brain.

    • False—(See Chapter 2)

  • Most brain activity stops during sleep.

    • False—(See Chapter 5)

  • People who threaten suicide seldom follow through with it.

    • False—(See Chapter 15)

  • Similarity is the best predictor of long-term relationships.

    • True—(See Chapter 16)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 7

Introducing Psychology: Psychology’s Four Goals

  • Description: tells “what” occurred

  • Explanation: tells “why” a behavior or mental process occurred

  • Prediction: identifies conditions under which a future behavior or mental process is likely to occur

  • Change: applies psychological knowledge to prevent unwanted behavior or to bring about desired goals

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 8

Biopsychology/ Neuroscience

Clinical & Counseling Psychology

Cognitive Psychology

Developmental Psychology

Educational & School Psychology

Experimental Psychology

Introducing Psychology: Applying Psychology to Work (Sample Specialties)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 9

Forensic Psychology

Gender/Cultural Psychology

Health Psychology

Industrial/Organizational Psychology

Social Psychology

Applying Psychology to Work (Sample Specialties Continued)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 10

Careers in Psychology: Percentage of Psychology Degrees by Specialty

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 11

Introducing Psychology: Ethnicities of Doctorate Recipients in Psychology

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 12

Origins of Psychology

  • Wilhelm Wundt:“father of psychology”

  • Structuralism: sought to identify the basic building blocks, or structures, of the mind through introspection (Titchenerkey leader)

  • Functionalism: studied how the mind functions to adapt organisms to their environment (James key leader)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 13

Psychoanalytic/ Psychodynamic Perspective:unconscious processes & unresolved past conflicts (Freud = key founder)

Origins of Psychology (Continued)

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 14

Behavioral Perspective:objective, observable environmental influences on overt behavior (Watson,Pavlov,& Skinner were key figures)

Origins of Psychology (Continued)

B. F. Skinner (1904-1990)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 15

Origins of Psychology (Continued)

  • Humanistic Perspective: free will, self-actualization, & a positive, growth-seeking human nature (Rogers&Maslow were key figures)

+

=

Carl Rogers (1902-1987)

Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 16

Cognitive Perspective:thinking, perceiving, problem solving, memory, language, & information processing

Origins of Psychology (Continued)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 17

Origins of Psychology (Continued)

  • Neuroscience/ Biopsychology Perspective:genetics & other biological processes in the brain & other parts of the nervous system

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 18

Origins of Psychology (Continued)

  • Evolutionary Perspective:natural selection, adaptation, & evolution

  • Sociocultural Perspective:social interaction & cultural determinants

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 19

Origins of Psychology: One Unifying Theme of Modern Psychology

  • Biopsychosocial model: combines all seven major perspectives

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 20

Why do psychologists & other scientists need multiple perspectives? (One possible answer appears on the next slide.)

Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 21

Multiple perspectives allow psychologists to better understand research & complex behavior & mental processes.

Do See a Vase &/0r Two Faces?

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 22

The Science of Psychology

  • Basic Research: conducted to advance scientific knowledge

  • Applied Research: designed to solve practical problems

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 23

Pause & Reflect: Assessment

  • Is this an example of basic or applied research?

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 24

The Scientific Method

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 25

The Science of Psychology: Ethical Guidelines

  • Ethical Guidelines for Human Research Participants:

    • Informed consent

    • Voluntary participation

    • Restricted use of deception

    • Debriefing

    • Confidentiality

    • Alternative activities

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 26

The Science of Psychology: Ethical Guidelines (Continued)

  • Rights of Nonhuman Participants: Advocates believe nonhuman research offers significant scientific benefits. Opponents question these benefits & suggest nonhuman animals cannot giveinformed consent.

  • General Guidelines: Psychologists must maintain high standards for both human & nonhuman animal research.

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 27

Pause & Reflect: Assessment

  • What are the four major goals of psychology?

  • The _____ perspective focuses onnatural selection, adaptation, & evolution.

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 28

Research Methods

  • Four key research methods:

    • Experimental

    • Descriptive

    • Correlational

    • Biological

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 29

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Art of Prediction

Slide 30

Four Key Research Methods (Continued)

1. Experimental Research: carefully controlled scientific procedure that manipulates variables to determine cause & effect

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 31

Research Methods—Experimental (Continued)

  • Key features of an experiment:

    • Independent variable (factor that is manipulated) versus dependent variable (factor that is measured)

    • Experimental group (receives treatment) versus control group (receives no treatment)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 32

  • Does TV increase aggression? Only an experiment can determinecause & effect.

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 33

Research Methods—Experimental (Continued)

  • Potentialresearcherproblems:

    • Experimenter bias(researcher influences the research results in the expected direction)

    • Ethnocentrism(believing one's culture is typical of all cultures)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 34

Research Methods—Experimental (Continued)

  • Potentialparticipantproblems:

    • Sample bias:research participants are unrepresentative of the larger population

    • Participant bias:research participants are influenced by the researcher or experimental conditions

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 35

Research Methods—Experimental (Continued)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 36

Research Methods—Descriptive

  • 2. Descriptive Research: observes & records behavior without producing causal explanations

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 37

Research Methods—Descriptive

Three types of descriptive research:

  • Naturalistic Observation:observation & recording of behavior in natural state or habitat

  • Survey:assessment of a sample or population

  • Case Study:in-depth study of a single participant

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 38

Pause & Reflect: Psychology at Work

  • What is the advantage of studying psychological research methods like naturalistic observation? (One possible answer appears on the next slide.)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 39

Do You Get it? Studying Psychology Helps You “Get” the Underlying Humor of Many Cartoons

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 40

Research Methods—Correlational

3. Correlational Research: observes or measures (without directly manipulating) two or more variables to find relationshipsbetween them

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 41

Positive Correlation: two variables move (or vary) in the samedirection—either up or down

Research Methods—Correlational

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 42

Negative Correlation: two variables move (or vary) in the oppositedirection—either up or down

Research Methods—Correlational

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 43

Zero Correlation:no relationship between two variables (when one variable increases, the other can increase,decrease, or stay the same)

Research Methods—Correlational

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 44

Research Methods—Correlational

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 45

Research Methods—Correlational

  • Can you see why correlation can never show cause & effect?

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 46

Research Methods—Biological

4. Biological Research: scientific studies of the brain & other parts of the nervous system

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 47

Pause & Reflect: Assessment

  • Why is an experiment the only way we can determine cause & effect?

  • What is the difference between a positive correlation & a negative correlation?

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 48

Tools for Student Success

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 49

Tools for Student Success (Continued)

  • Four major tools:

    • Active Reading (SQ4R)

    • Time Management (setting up a realistic study, social, & work schedule)

    • Grade Improvement (note taking, study habits, test-taking tips)

    • Additional Resources (instructors, classmates, study groups, etc.)

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 50

Can You Identify the Real U.S. Penny?

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 51

Tools for Student Success: The Importance of Time Management

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 52

Pause & Reflect: Critical Thinking

  • Can you see how the lack of active reading or careful studying helps explain why most people cannot easily identify the actual U.S. penny despite having seen it thousands of times?

  • Which of the four major “Tools for Student Success” do you plan to work on to improve your academic performance?

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010

Slide 53

Introduction to Psychology & Its Research Methods

PowerPoint  Lecture Notes Presentation

End of CHAPTER 1

© John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2010


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