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Human Factors Course Session 3. 2007 March 28. Eric Davey Crew Systems Solutions. Introduction. Session 3 - Design to support human-system interaction. Topics Expectations and challenges Principles and practices Automation Application process Integrating HF with system design

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Human Factors Course Session 3

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Human Factors CourseSession 3

2007 March 28

Eric Davey

Crew Systems Solutions


Introduction

Session 3 - Design to support human-system interaction

  • Topics

    • Expectations and challenges

    • Principles and practices

    • Automation

    • Application process

      • Integrating HF with system design

    • Resources

    • Regulatory expectations

    • Case Study - Therac 25 Medical Accelerator


Background

CLS Mission Expectations

  • Expectations

    • Excellence in performance

    • Increasing effectiveness and efficiencies

    • Safety and production

  • Environment

    • Ongoing facility change and evolution

    • Increasing complexity

    • Increasing applications of technology/automation


Background

Achieving Expectations

  • Systematic Approach

    • Well defined goals

    • Understanding of hazards and risks

    • Rigourous equipment design

    • Defined practices and processes

    • Controlled operations

    • Ongoing assessment of performance

    • Use of standards and peer guidance

    • Continual learning and improvement


Background

Importance of Human Performance

  • Responsibility

    • People design, direct and supervise facility operation

  • Human Impact

    • Pervasiveness of human involvement in facility operation

  • Experience

    • Need to provide support for human performance


Background

Operational Challenges

  • Conversion Gulfs

Execution

Evaluation

Process State

Activities

State

Gulf

Gulf

Automation

Actions

Data

Gulf

Gulf

Intentions

Information

Goals


Principles & Practices

Supporting Human Performance

  • User Support Principles

    • Environment

      • Reduce distractions

    • User Accommodations

      • Reduce memory dependence

      • Simplify tasks

      • Standardize

      • Expect variability

      • Expect errors

Recognizing capabilities


Principles & Practices

Supporting Human Performance

  • System Design Principles

    • Conceptual Model

    • Visibility

    • Info completeness & validity

    • Mappings

    • Feedback

    • Affordances & constraints

Shrinking thegulfs


Principles & Practices

Supporting Human Performance

  • Operating Practices

    • Pre-job briefing

    • Procedure use and adherence

    • Self-check (STAR)

    • Three-way communication

    • Questioning attitude

    • Independent verification

    • Conservative decision-making

Reducing variability and error


Management

Control

Automation

Automation Duties

  • Application Levels

Facility Processes

• Closed loop control

• Protection

• Testing

Automation

• Conversion

• Presentation

• Archival

Information

Business Processes

• Work management

• Planning


Automation

Supervisory Control Challenges

  • Detrimental Automation Properties

    • Complexity

    • Coupling

    • Autonomy

    • Inadequate feedback

Automation


Automation

Supervisory Control Principles

  • Authority

    • Operator must be in command

  • Process Status

    • Operator must be informed of plant state and trends

  • Automation Status

    • Operator must be informed about and able to monitor automation


Automation

Supervisory Control Principles

  • Predictability

    • Automation must be predictable

  • Human Error

    • Automation must be able to monitor operator actions and intervene when appropriate

  • Knowledge of Intent

    • To effectively monitor, the operator and automation should have knowledge of the others intent


Design Principles

Automation Principles

  • Four Groups of Automation Principles

    • General (applicable to all three categories)

    • Category Specific

      • Control

      • Information

      • Management


Design Principles

Automation Principles - General

  • Operator Involvement

    • Design automation and function allocations to promote meaningful operator involvement

  • Operator Awareness

    • Use automation to maintain and enhance operator situation awareness

  • Ease of Use

    • Provide automation that is easy to use


Design Principles

Automation Principles - General

  • Reliance

    • Assume operators will rely on automation if it is available

  • Backup

    • Provide means to gracefully transition to backup functions on failure

  • Training

    • Design automation so that learning to use it is simple


Design Principles

Automation Principles - Control

  • Visibility

    • Make the performance and failure of control functions visible

  • Autonomy

    • Limit independence of control actions

  • Operating Limits

    • Provide capability for operators to override operating limits to preserve or re-establish safety


Design Principles

Automation Principles - Information

  • Context

    • Present information in situational context

  • Operator Tasks

    • Provide direct support for operator tasks

  • Validity of Information

    • Differentiate between valid and invalid indications


Design Principles

Automation Principles - Management

  • Operator Tasks

    • Provide support for additional operator tasks beyond direct supervision and control

  • Information Exchange

    • Facilitate information exchange and use between systems


Application Process

Applying HF - Guiding Principles

  • Value

    • HF activities must make sense from your business perspective first and foremost

  • Emphasis

    • Up-front, pro-active application

  • Integration

    • HF activities integrated with other project activities

  • Delivery

    • 80 versus 20 rule


Application Process

HF Application Model

Planning Analysis Design Testing Use

In-service

Need

Requirements

Implement

Commission

Goals

Functions

• People

• Equipment

Equipment

• Workspace

• Interface

Change

Management

Verification

Assessment

Analysis

• Contexts

• Tasks

• Errors

Review

• Experience

Procedures

• Content

• Representation

Validation

Performance

Monitoring

Application

(HF Plan)

Staff & Training

• Knowledge

• Skills


Application Process

Planning

Planning Analysis Design Testing Use

Need

Goals

Assessment

Determination of the need and emphasis

for human factors activities

Selection of human factors activities,

resources, and deliverables

Application

(HF Plan)


Application Process

Analysis

Planning Analysis Design Testing Use

Requirements

Functions

• People

• Equipment

Describe distribution of function

elements to people and equipment

Analysis

• Contexts

• Tasks

• Errors

Review

• Experience

Describe operating situations

Describe tasks performed by users

Assess potential for task error & impacts

Identify lessons learned from

previous experience


Application Process

Design

Planning Analysis Design Testing Use

Implement

Input to definition of

all design elements

• Contexts

• Task content

• Information needs

Guidance based on

proven practice

Equipment

• Workspace

• Interface

Procedures

• Content

• Representation

Staff & Training

• Knowledge

• Skills


Application Process

Testing

Planning Analysis Design Testing Use

Confirm design and

implementation conforms

to human factors requirements

• Task information

• Conventions and standards

Commission

Verification

Validation

A performance test to confirm

integrated system meets

operational intent and human

needs:

• Measures

• Standards for acceptance


Application Process

Use

Planning Analysis Design Testing Use

In-service

Identification and control of system

and environmental changes

Change

Management

Ongoing assessment of human

performance with system to detect

changes from expected performance

Performance

Monitoring


Resources

Concepts and Standards

  • HF Concepts

    • Psychology of Everyday Things - Norman

    • The Human Factor - Vicente

    • On Intelligence - Hawkins

  • Application Process

    • IEEE 1023

    • NUREG 0711

    • CNSC Policy and Regulatory Guides


Resources

Guidance

  • Interface Design

    • NUREG 700

    • IEEE series

    • Handbook of Human Factors - Salvendy

  • Operational Practices

    • Industrial Operators Handbook - Howlett

  • Procedures

    • Procedure Writing - Principles and Practices


Regulatory Expectations

Canadian Regulatory Basis

  • Objective

    • Protect people and environment from man-made radiation

  • Principles

    • Licensees to prove operations are safe

    • Multiple layers of protection

    • People or technology are not infallible


Regulatory Expectations

CNSC HF Regulatory Basis

  • P-119 Policy on Human Factors

    • Safety - Man-made radiation - Environment, People

  • C-276 HF Engineering Program Plan - Draft

    • Communication of HF application intent

      • Goals & Scope

      • Criteria & Methods

      • Deliverables and Schedule

  • C-278 HF Verification & Validation Plan - Draft

    • Communication of assessment intent


Regulatory Expectations

CNSC HF Oversight Principles

  • Emphasis

    • Changes and impacts

  • Beliefs

    • Any aspect of how you do business is a reflection of your approach to safety

    • Production challenges are a precursor to safety challenges

  • Review Scope

    • Process

    • Products


Regulatory Expectations

CNSC HF Expectations

  • Program Definition

    • Goals to be achieved

    • Rigour a function of safety risk

  • Scope of Application

    • Organization design

    • Operational practices

    • Workspaces

    • Roles and uses of technology

    • Procedures

    • Staff qualification and training


Regulatory Expectations

CNSC HF Expectations

  • Approach

    • Knowledgeable staff

    • Task understanding as basis for design

    • Use of guidance and previous experience

    • HF integrated with other project activities

    • Visibility of HF activities

    • Ongoing regulatory dialog

    • Design verification

    • Operational validation

    • Performance and issue tracking


Regulatory Expectations

CNSC HF Expectations

  • Documentation

    • Plans

    • Analyses

    • Design

      • Equipment, Procedures & Work Practices

    • Assessment

      • Methods + Results

    • In Service Preparation

      • Training

      • Commissioning


Case Study

Therac 25 Medical Accelerator

  • Discussion of mis-operation with respect to human factors issues


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