Study on adaptation of cdn request routing to scalable conference system
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Study on Adaptation of CDN Request-Routing to Scalable Conference System. Toshiyuki KAWASAKI* Koji OKAMURA** * G raduate School of Information Science and Electrical Engineering (ISEE), Kyushu University ** Computing and Communications Center, Kyushu University Aug 28,2003. Contents.

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Study on Adaptation of CDN Request-Routing to Scalable Conference System

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Study on adaptation of cdn request routing to scalable conference system

Study on Adaptation of CDN Request-Routing to ScalableConference System

Toshiyuki KAWASAKI*Koji OKAMURA**

* Graduate School of Information Science and

Electrical Engineering (ISEE), Kyushu University

** Computing and Communications Center,

Kyushu University

Aug 28,2003


Study on adaptation of cdn request routing to scalable conference system

Contents

1.Background

2.Goal and approach

3.Evaluation

4.Consideration

5.Conclusion


Study on adaptation of cdn request routing to scalable conference system

  • H.323 conference system is popular

    • Remote conference

    • Remote medical care

    • Remote education

  • H.323

    • Standard of video conference

      on IP networks

  • MCU(Multipoint Control Unit)

    • Enable multipoint conference

    • Mixing the video and audio streams

1.Background-H.323 conference system

Host A

Host B

Host B

Host A

Host C

Host D


1 background overload of mcu

1.Background-Overload of MCU

  • Problem of H.323 multipoint conference system

    When hosts (participants) increase・・・

MCU may become overload

→load sharing is needed

←overload

MCU

  • Existing method of load sharing

    • Distribute the load to several MCUs

When more hosts increase

→MCUs may become overload after all

Lack of scalability for the number of hosts

←overload


Study on adaptation of cdn request routing to scalable conference system

2. Goal and approach-Load Sharing by Hosts

Proposal method

  • Don’t use any MCUs

  • Hosts connect with each other

  • Hosts play a role of MCUs

    • Hosts distribute load

    • increase of hosts     →increase of MCUs

Existing method

Obtain scalability for the number of hosts

Proposal method


Study on adaptation of cdn request routing to scalable conference system

2. Goal and approach- Application Level Multicast

  • Problem of the multipoint conference system without MCU

    • Each host should select the host which it connects with.

  • Existing method

    • ALM ( Application Level Multicast)

      • Multicast on logical network (overlay network)

      • Hosts play the role of multicast router on logical network.

Lobby server

Make links

Make high cost links

between ASs

Entry

IP address list

New host

AS2

AS1

Overlay network


Study on adaptation of cdn request routing to scalable conference system

2.Goal and approach- ORIO and CDN Request Routing

  • Proposal method ORIO(Optimal Routing Inter Organization)

    • Using CDN Request-Routing

  • CDN(Content Delivery Network)

    • Network of severs to distribute content efficiently

    • Load sharing by using many surrogates

  • Request Routing

    • Select the optimal surrogate for the clients

    • Tell clients their optimal surrogates

contents

select

notify

Redirection server

Origin server

notify

surrogate

surrogate

Delivery

contents

surrogate

request

surrogate

client

client

client

client

client

client


Study on adaptation of cdn request routing to scalable conference system

2. Goal and approach-Request routing using DNS

  • Process of participation at ORIO

    • Request Routing using DNS

      • Prepare DNS to redirect requests.

      • New participants write the certain host name for participation

        into the packets destination address.

      • DNS tell the optimal hosts IP address at name resolution.

         →Connected with its optimal host automatically

AS 3

DNS server

AS 1

select

133.x.x.xxx

conference.ac.jp(host name)

connect

133.x.x.xxx(IP address)

New host

AS 2


Study on adaptation of cdn request routing to scalable conference system

3.Evaluation-Evaluation Environment

Simulation based evaluation using network simulator “NS2”

  • Evaluation standard

    • Maximum network load

  • Comparing with the method using ALM

  • Experimental Network

    • SuperSINET

    • The number of ASs is 18

    • The number of hosts per ASs is 64

  • Environment

    • Speakers※ 1、Hosts※1~256

      • Change distribution of hosts

      • Change the number of active AS

    • Speakers 1~128、Hosts128

Experimental Network(SuperSINET)

※Speakers = the number of source hosts, hosts = the number of destination hosts


Study on adaptation of cdn request routing to scalable conference system

3.Evaluation-simulation under the 3 distribution of hosts

Maximum use of bandwidth (kbps)

  • Speakers 1, Hosts 1~256

    • Distribute hosts to 6 ASs

    • Measure under the 3 distribution of hosts

      • Concentrate at 1 area

      • Concentrate at 2 areas

      • Concentrate at 3 areas

1 area (ORIO)

2 area (ORIO)

3 area (ORIO)

1 area (ALM)

2 area (ALM)

3 area (ALM)

  • Result

    • the increase amount of networkload is decreasing as the number of participants increase

        → Scalability to the number of hosts.

    • ORIO is better than ALM at load sharing

The number of hosts


Study on adaptation of cdn request routing to scalable conference system

3.Evaluation - Change the number of ASs

Maximum use of bandwidth (kbps)

  • Speakers1,Hosts1~256

    • Changing the number of ASs which hosts belong to

      • Select hosts from 6 ASs

      • Select hosts from 12 ASs

      • Select hosts from 18 ASs

  • Result

    • ORIO is better than ALM at load sharing

    • ORIO’s efficiency of load sharing become worse when the number of AS is small ( hosts per AS is big).

        → Policy of routing within AS should be improved.

The number of hosts


Study on adaptation of cdn request routing to scalable conference system

3.Evaluation - Speakers

Maximum use of bandwidth (Mbps)

  • Change the number of SpeakersSpeakers 1~128    Hosts 128

    • Select hosts randomly

  • Result

    • Network load increase linearly at both ORIO and ALM.

       →Don’t provide scalability in this case.

      The number of speakers should be limited.

The number of speakers


Study on adaptation of cdn request routing to scalable conference system

4.Consideration-Efficiency of ORIO and restriction of ALM

  • ORIO provide more efficient load sharing than ALM

  • Possible reason

    ・ ALM uses logical network for routing,

    but ORIO doesn’t use it.

    In ALM, there are two restrictions in receiving streams

    • Receivable only from its neighbors on the overlay network

    • Receivable only from its upstream hosts


Study on adaptation of cdn request routing to scalable conference system

4.Consideration-restriction of ALM

  • Receivable only from its neighbors on the overlay network

  • Receivable only from its upstream hosts

    → Promote the concentration of the load

Concentrate the load

Concentrate the load

Concentrate the load

Concentrate the load

speaker

Speaker

speaker

Speaker

Host C

Host C

Host C

Host C

delay

9ms

delay

9ms

delay

5ms

delay

5ms

delay

7ms

delay

7ms

router

Router

Router

router

Can’t use this

link though it is useful

Can’t use this

link though it is useful

delay

10ms

delay

7ms

delay

7ms

delay

10ms

Not neighbor

B is not A’s

upstream host

(B’s delay is bigger than A)

Host A

Host A

Host B

Host B

Host A

Host A

Host B

Host B


Study on adaptation of cdn request routing to scalable conference system

5.Conclusion

  • Existing multipoint conference system

    • MCU easily become overload

  • Method of load sharing

    • Any MCU is not used

    • Hosts play a role of MCUs instead

  • The system which tells the hosts their connection partner is required

    • CDN Request-Routing

  • Result

    • Prove the scalability of ORIO

  • Future work

    • Adding the function which support the hosts exiting process

    • Improve the policy of routing within AS


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