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Part 3 Sensory Function of the Nervous System. I Sensory pathways. Sensory systems allow us to detect, analyze and respond to our environment “ ascending pathways ” Carry information from sensory receptors to the brain Conscious: reach cerebral cortex

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Part 3

Sensory Function of the Nervous System


I sensory pathways
I Sensory pathways

  • Sensory systems allow us to detect, analyze and respond to our environment

  • “ascending pathways”

  • Carry information from sensory receptors to the brain

  • Conscious: reach cerebral cortex

  • Unconscious: do not reach cerebral cortex

  • Sensations from body reach the opposite side of the brain


1 sensory receptors

A

B

C

D

1. Sensory receptors

A: Free nerve endings (pain, temperature)

B: Pacinian corpuscle (pressure)

C: Meissner’s corpuscle (touch)

D: Muscle spindle (stretch)



2 sensory pathways 3 neurons
2. Sensory pathways: 3 neurons

  • 1st: enters spinal cord from periphery

  • 2nd: crosses over (decussates), ascends in spinal cord to thalamus

  • 3rd: projects to somatosensory cortex


2 1 spinothalamic pathway
2.1 Spinothalamic pathway

  • Carries pain, temperature, touch and pressure signals

  • 1st neuron enters spinal cord through dorsal root

  • 2nd neuron crosses over in spinal cord; ascends to thalamus

  • 3rd neuron projects from thalamus to somatosensory cortex


spinothalamic

pathway


Spinothalamic Pathway

Primary somatosensory cortex (S1)

Thalamus

Medulla

Small sensory fibres:

Pain, temperature, some touch

Spinothalamic tract

Spinal cord


Spinothalamic damage

Left

spinal cord injury

spinothalamic pathway

  • Loss of sense of:

  • Touch

  • Pain

  • Warmth/cold

  • in right leg

Spinothalamic damage


2 2 dorsal column pathway
2.2 Dorsal column pathway

  • Carries fine touch, vibration and conscious proprioception signals

  • 1st neuron enters spinal cord through dorsal root; ascends to medulla (brain stem)

  • 2nd neuron crosses over in medulla; ascends to thalamus

  • 3rd neuron projects to somatosensory cortex



dorsal

cloumn

pathway


Dorsal column pathway

Primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in parietal lobe

Dorsal column

nuclei

Thalamus

Medulla

Medial

lemniscus

Dorsal column

Large sensory nerves:

Touch, vibration, two-point discrimination, proprioception

Spinal cord


Dorsal column damage

Left

spinal cord injury

dorsal column

pathway

  • Loss of sense of:

  • touch

  • proprioception

  • vibration

  • in left leg

Dorsal column damage


Dorsal column damage1
Dorsal column damage

  • Sensory ataxia

  • Patient staggers; cannot perceive position or movement of legs

  • Visual clues help movement



3 3 spinocerebellar pathway
3.3 Spinocerebellar pathway

  • Carries unconscious proprioception signals

  • Receptors in muscles & joints

  • 1st neuron: enters spinal cord through dorsal root

  • 2nd neuron: ascends to cerebellum

  • No 3rd neuron to cortex, hence unconscious


Spinocerebellar tract damage
Spinocerebellar tract damage

  • Cerebellar ataxia

  • Clumsy movements

  • Incoordination of the limbs (intention tremor)

  • Wide-based, reeling gait (ataxia)

  • Alcoholic intoxication produces similar effects!


4. Somatosensory cortex

Located in the postcentral gyrus of the human cerebral cortex.


Spatial orientation of signals.

  • Each side of the cortex receives sensory information exclusively from the opposite side of the body

  • (the exception: the same side of the face).


2)The lips, face and thumb are represented by large areas in the somatic cortex,

whereas the trunk and lower part of the body, relatively small area.

Spatial orientation of signals.

3)The head in the most lateral portion, and the lower body is presented medially


II . Pain the somatic cortex,


the somatic cortex, Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage or described in terms of such damage”

International Association for the Study of Pain


Why feel pain
Why feel pain? the somatic cortex,

  • Gives conscious awareness of tissue damage

  • Protection:

    • Remove body from danger

    • Promote healing by preventing further damage

    • Avoid noxious stimuli

  • Elicits behavioural and emotional responses


1. Nociceptors the somatic cortex,

free nerve endings in skin respond to noxious stimuli


Nociceptors
Nociceptors the somatic cortex,

  • Nociceptors are special receptors that respond only to noxious stimuli and generate nerve impulses which the brain interprets as "pain".


Nociopectors the somatic cortex,

  • Adequate Stimulation

  • Temperature

  • Mechanical damage

  • Chemicals (released from damaged tissue)

  • Bradykinin, serotonin, histamine, K+, acids, acetylcholine, and proteolytic enzymes can excite the chemical type of pain.

  • Prostaglandins and substance P enhance the sensitivity of pain endings but do not directly excite them.


Hyperalgesia: the somatic cortex,

The skin, joints, or muscles that have already been damaged are unusually sensitive. A light touch to a damaged area may elicit excruciating pain;

Primary hyperalgesia occurs within the area of damaged tissue;

Secondary hyperalgesia occurs within the tissues surrounding a damaged area.


  • 2. Localization of Pain the somatic cortex,

  • Superficial Somatic Pain arises from skin areas

  • Deep Somatic Pain arises from muscle, joints, tendons & fascia

  • Visceral Pain arises from receptors in visceral organs

    • localized damage (cutting) intestines causes no pain

    • diffuse visceral stimulation can be severe

      • distension of a bile duct from a gallstone

      • distension of the ureter from a kidney stone


3. Fast and Slow Pain the somatic cortex,

  • Most pain sensation is a combination of the two types of message.

    • If you prick your finger you first feel a sharp pain which is conducted by the A fibres,

    • and this is followed by a dull pain conveyed along C fibres.


  • Fast pain (acute) the somatic cortex,

    • occurs rapidly after stimuli (.1 second)

    • sharp pain like needle puncture or cut

    • not felt in deeper tissues

    • larger A nerve fibers

  • Slow pain (chronic)

    • begins more slowly & increases in intensity

    • in both superficial and deeper tissues

    • smaller C nerve fibers


spinothalamic the somatic cortex,

pathway

to reticular

formation

Aδ nerve

C nerve

nociceptor

nociceptor

Impulses transmitted to spinal cord by

  • Myelinated Aδ nerves: fast pain (80 m/s)

  • Unmyelinated C nerves: slow pain (0.4 m/s)


somato- the somatic cortex,

sensory

cortex

thalamus

spinothalamic

pathway

reticular

formation

Impulses ascend to somatosensory cortex via:

  • Spinothalamic pathway (fast pain)

  • Reticular formation (slow pain)


4. the somatic cortex, Visceral pain

Notable features of visceral pain:

Often accompanied by strong autonomic and/or somatic reflexes

Poorly localized;

may be “referred”

Mostly caused by distension of hollow organs or ischemia (localized mechanical trauma may be painless)


Afferent innervation of the viscera. the somatic cortex,

Often anatomical separation nociceptive innervation (in sympathetic nerves) from non-nociceptive (predominantly in vagus).

Many visceral afferents are specialized nociceptors, as in other tissues small (Ad and C) fibers involved.

Large numbers of silent/sleeping nociceptors, awakened by inflammation.

Nociceptor sensitization well developed in all visceral nociceptors.


Referred pain
Referred pain the somatic cortex,

  • Pain originating from organs perceived as coming from skin

  • Site of pain may be distant from organ


Convergence theory: the somatic cortex,

This type of referred pain occurs because both visceral and somatic afferents often converge on the same interneurons in the pain pathways.

Excitation of the somatic afferent fibers is the more usual source of afferent discharge,

so we “refer” the location of visceral receptor activation to the somatic source even though in the case of visceral pain.

The perception is incorrect.

Referred pain

The convergence of nociceptor input from the viscera and the skin.


5 pain gate theory
5. “Pain Gate” Theory the somatic cortex,

Melzack & Wall (1965)

A gate, where pain impulses can be “gated”

The synaptic junctions between the peripheral nociceptor fiber and the dorsal horn cells in the spinal cord are the sites of considerable plasticity.

A “gate” can stop pain signals arriving at the spinal cord from being passed to the brain

  • Reduced pain sensation

  • Natural pain relief (analgesia)


descending nerve the somatic cortex,

fibers from brain

axons from touch receptors

pain pathways

axons from nociceptors

“THE PAIN GATE”

opioid-releasing

interneuron


How does pain gate work
How does “pain gate” work? the somatic cortex,

The gate = spinal cord interneurons that release opioids.

The gate can be activated by:

  • Simultaneous activity in other sensory (touch) neurons

  • Descending nerve fibers from brain


Applications of pain gate
Applications of pain gate the somatic cortex,

Stimulation of touch fibres for pain relief:

  • TENS (transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation)

  • Acupuncture

  • Massage

    Release of natural opioids

  • Hypnosis

  • Natural childbirth techniques


6 pain relief
6. Pain Relief the somatic cortex,

  • Aspirin and ibuprofen block formation of prostaglandins that stimulate nociceptors

  • Novocain blocks conduction of nerve impulses along pain fibers

  • Morphine lessen the perception of pain in the brain.


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