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Part Five The Nervous System. Department of Anatomy ,Qingdao University Medical College W.S.B 2003.11.11. Chapter 14 General Description. (page279). It regulates & integrates activities of all the body ballanc of enviroments internal & external in the body.

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Part Five The Nervous System

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Part five the nervous system

Part FiveThe Nervous System

Department of Anatomy ,Qingdao University Medical College

W.S.B 2003.11.11


Part five the nervous system

Chapter 14 General Description

(page279)

It regulates & integratesactivities of all the body

ballanc of enviroments internal & external in the body


The organization of the nervous system

Ⅰ.The organization of the Nervous system

1.The peripheral nervous system (PNS)

(周围神经系)

2.The central nervous system (CNS)

(中枢神经系)


The organization of the nervous system1

Ⅰ.The organization of the Nervous system

Division of nervous system

1. Central nervous system (中枢神经系)

(1) brain (脑)

(2) spinal cord (脊髓)

2. Peripheral nervous system (周围神经系)

(1) cranial nerves (脑神经)

(2) spinal nerves (脊神经)

(3) visceral nerves (内脏神经)


Part five the nervous system

Ⅱ. Composition of the nervous system

1). Neurons

(神经元)

2). Neuroglia

(神经胶质)

Classification;Pseudounipolar N. Bipolar N.Multaipolar N Elements; Membran Cytoplasm Nucleus

Neuroglia Classify

Macroglia astrocyte

Microglia oligodendrocyte

EpendymaSchwann cell


Part five the nervous system

2. Composition of the nervous system

1. Neurons

structure .

Cell body dendrite

Processe— axon+myelin= nerve fiber

Synapse .

Chimecal synapses

Electric synapses

Neurotransmitters

AChE,DP,SP,ENK

Fuction:

Conduct impuls,

Excitation or

inhibition


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Axoplasmic transport:

slow rate 1~3mm/d

rapid rate

400mm/d

Axo-tracing technique

anterograde retrograde

Degenerration:

Lesion Weller

anterograde retrograde


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Receptors(感受器)Afferent nerve (传入神经)

Centres(中枢)

Effectors(效应器) Efferent nerve(传出神经)

Ⅲ. Reflex arc and Reflex (反射弧和反射)


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Ⅳ.Terminology of the nervous system

1). Nucleus (神经核) & ganglion (神经节)

2). Gray matter (灰质) & white matter (白质)

3). Nerve (神经) & fasciculus (纤维束)


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Ⅴ.Neuronanatomical methods

1.Histological technics

Stain: Cox. Golgi. Cajal. Nissl.

Weigert. Marchi. Nauta.

2.Histochemistry

Koelle(AChE). Falck.

3.Axon tracing

ARG. HRP.

Kuyper(Ny. FB)

4.Immunocytoche- mistry


Part five the nervous system

Ⅵ. Functions of the nervous system

1. It regulates (调节) and intergrates (整 合) the activities of all the bodily system for the benefit of the organism as a whole.

2. The nervous system is also the seat of all mental activity, including consciousness (意识), memory (记忆) & thinking (思维).


Chapter 16 the peripheral nervous system

Chapter 16 THE PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (周围神经)

(Page359)

  • The Spinal Nerves (脊神经)

  • The Cranial Nerves (脑神经)

  • The Autonomic Nervous System (自主神经系) (The Visceral Nervous System 内脏神经系)


Section 1 the spinal nerves

Section 1 The Spinal Nerves (脊神经)

1. Composition (组成):

1) anterior root (前根):

efferent fibers (传出纤维)

2) posterior root (后根):

afferent f ibers(传入纤维)

3) spinal ganglia (脊神经节)


The spinal nerves

The Spinal Nerves (脊神经)

2. Classification (分类):

1) cervical nerves

(颈神经): C 1 - C 8

2) thoracic nerves

(胸神经): T 1 - T 12

3) lumbar nerves

(腰神经): L 1 - L 5

4) sacral nerves

(骶神经): S1 - S 5

5) coccygeal nerve

(尾神经): Co 1


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(皮节)


A cervical plexus c 1 4

A. Cervical plexus (C1-4)

1. Location (位置)

Opposite C 1-3, ventral to the levator scapulae and middle scalene muscle and covered by sternocleido-mastoid(肩胛提肌和中斜角肌之前, 被胸锁乳突肌覆盖).

[local anesthesia (toponarcosis) 局部麻醉]


Cervical plexus c 1 4

Cervical plexus(C1-4)

2. Superficial branches (浅支)

1) lesser occipital n.

(枕小神经)(C2)

2) great auricular n.

(耳大神经)(C2,3)

3) transverse n. of neck

(颈横神经) (C2,3)

4) supraclavicular nn.

(锁骨上神经)(C3,4)


Cervical plexus c 1 41

Cervical plexus (C1-4)

3. Deep branches (深支)

1)phrenic n.

(膈神经) (C3-5)

[phrenico tripsy

膈神经压轧术]

[hiccup, hiccough 呃逆]

2) accessory phrenic n.

(副膈神经)48%


Part five the nervous system

Cervical plexus(C1-4)


B the brachial plexus c 5 t 1

B. The Brachial Plexus(C5-T1)

1. Location : interscalenus space (斜角肌间隙)

2. Formation : (根,干,股,束,支)

C5

后股

superior trunk

(上干)

ant.division (股)

lat. cord (外侧束)

musculocut. n

(肌皮神经)

C6

post.division(股)

前股

post.cord(后束)

桡n.

C7

middle trunk

正中

后股

C8

inferior trunk

(下干)

anterior division

(前股)

med.cord(内侧束)

Ulnar n. (尺神经)

T1


Part five the nervous system

The Brachial Plexus(C5-T1)


The brachial plexus c 5 t 1

The Brachial Plexus(C5-T1)

3. Branches

Branches above the clavicle (锁骨上支)

1) long thoracic n.

(胸长神经) (C5 -7)

[winged scapula

翼状肩]

2) suprascapular n.

(肩胛上神经)

3) dorsal scapular n.

(肩胛背神经)


The brachial plexus c 5 t 11

The Brachial Plexus(C5-T1)

Branches below the clavicle (锁骨下支)

1)subscapular n. (肩胛下神经)

2) medial and lateral pectoral nn.

(胸内侧和胸外侧神经)

3) thoracodorsal n. (胸背神经) (C6 -8)

4) axillary n. (腋神经) (C5,6)

[squired scapula 方形肩]


The brachial plexus c 5 t 12

The Brachial Plexus(C5-T1)

5) musculocutaneous n. (肌皮神经) (C5-7) → lateral

ante-

brachial

cutan-

eous n.

(前臂外

侧皮神经)


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The Brachial Plexus(C5-T1)

6) . median n. (正中神经)

→ recurrent branch (返支)

→ common palmar

digital nn.

(指掌侧总神经)

→ proper palmar

digital nn.

(指掌侧固有神经)

[monkey paw,

ape-like hand 猿形手]


The brachial plexus c 5 t 13

The Brachial Plexus(C5-T1)

7)  ulnar n. (尺神经) (C8-T1)

→ superficial branch (浅支)

→ common palmar

digital n. (指掌侧总神经)

→ proper palmar

digital n. (指掌侧固有神经)

→ deep palmar branch

(掌深支)

→ dorsal branch

(背支)

[claw hand 爪形手]


Part five the nervous system

The Brachial Plexus(C5-T1)

7)  ulnar n. (尺神经) (C8-T1)

→ superficial branch (浅支)

→ common palmar

digital n.(指掌侧总神经)

→ proper palmar

digital n. (指掌侧固有神经)

→ deep palmar branch (掌深支)

→ dorsal branch

(背支)

[claw hand 爪形手]


Part five the nervous system

The Brachial Plexus(C5-T1)


The brachial plexus c 5 t 14

The Brachial Plexus(C5-T1)

8)  radial n.

(桡神经) (C5-T1)

→ post. brachial cutaneous n.

(臂后皮神经)

→ muscular branches (肌支)

→ extensor mm.

of the arm


Part five the nervous system

The Brachial Plexus(C5-T1)

→ superficial branch (浅支)

→ dorsal digital nn.

(指背神经)

→ deep branch

(深支)

→ extensor mm. of the forearm

[carpoptosis (wrist drop) 垂腕]


The brachial plexus c 5 t 15

The Brachial Plexus(C5-T1)

9) medial brachial cutaneous n.

(臂内侧皮神经)

10) medial antebrachial cutaneous n.

(前臂内侧皮神经)


C the anterior branches of thoracic nerves

C. The Anterior Branches of Thoracic Nerves

1. Intercostal nn. (肋间神经)

→ lateral cutaneous br. (外侧皮支)

→ anterior cutaneous

br. (前皮支)

[intercostal neuralagia

肋间神经痛]

[intercostal n. Block

肋间神经封闭]

2. Subcostal n. (肋下神经)


D the lumbar plexus t 12 l 4

D. The Lumbar Plexus(T12-L4)

1. Location(位置):Between transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae & psoas major (腰椎横突与腰大肌之间)


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The Lumbar Plexus(T12-L4)

2. Branches (分支):

lumbosacral trunk

(腰骶干)

1) iliohypogastric n.

(髂腹下神经)(T12-L1)

2) ilioinguinal n.

(髂腹股沟神经) (L1)

3) lateral femoral

cutaneous n.

(股外侧皮神经) (L2-3)


Part five the nervous system

The Lumbar Plexus(T12-L4)


The lumbar plexus t 12 l 4

The Lumbar Plexus(T12-L4)

4)  femoral n. (股神经) (L2-4)

→ muscular branches

(肌支)

→ cutaneous branches

(皮支):

saphenous n. (隐神经)

[femoral n. Injury

股神经损伤]


The lumbar plexus t 12 l 41

The Lumbar Plexus(T12-L4)

5) obturator n. (闭孔神经) (L2-4)

→ anterior branch (前支)

→ posterior branch (后支)

[scissors gait 剪刀步态]

6) geniofemoral n.

(生殖股神经)

→ genicular branch

(生殖支)

→ femoral branch (股支)


E the sacral plexus l 4 co 1

E. The Sacral Plexus(L4 - Co1)

1.  Location: in the pelvis, where it is closely to the anterior surface of the piriformis (盆内紧靠梨状肌前面).


Part five the nervous system

E. The Sacral Plexus(L4 - Co1)

2. Branches (分支):

1) superior gluteal n. (臀上神经) (L4-S1)

2) inferior

gluteal n.

(臀下神经)

(L5-S2)


The sacral plexus l 4 co 1

The Sacral Plexus(L4 - Co1)

3) pudendal nerve (阴部神经) (S2-4)

→ anal nn. (肛神经)

→ perineal nn. (会阴神经)

→ dorsal n. of penis (clitoris) (阴茎背神经)


Part five the nervous system

The Sacral Plexus(L4 - Co1)

4) posterior femoral cutaneous n.

(股后皮神经)

[syndrome of

piriformis

梨状肌综合征]

[sacral anesthesia

骶管麻醉]


The sacral plexus l 4 co 11

The Sacral Plexus(L4 - Co1)

5) sciatic n.

(坐骨神经)

[sciatica (ischialgia neuralgia)

坐骨神经痛]

[sciatic neuritis

(ischiatis)

坐骨神经炎]


Part five the nervous system

The Sacral Plexus(L4 - Co1)

→ tibial n. (胫神经)

→ medial plantar n. (足底内侧神经)

→lateral plantar n. (足底外侧神经)

[unciform foot 钩状足]

[talipes calcaneus

仰趾足]

[calcaneovalgocavus

仰趾外翻足]


The sacral plexus l 4 co 12

The Sacral Plexus(L4 - Co1)

→  common peroneal nn. (腓总神经)

→ superficial peroneal n. (腓浅神经)

→ muscular and cutaneous branches

→ deep peroneal n. (腓深神经)

→ lateral sural cutaneous n.

(腓肠外侧皮神经) → sural n.

(腓肠神经)

[steppage gait 跨阈步态]

[equinovarus (talipes equinovarus)

马蹄内翻足]


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